Cerebral Small Vessel Disease (CSVD) – lessons from the animal models
- 1Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Malaysia
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) refers to a spectrum of clinical and imaging findings resulted from pathological processes of various aetiologies affecting cerebral arterioles, perforating arteries, capillaries and venules. Unlike large vessels, it is a challenge to visualize small vessels in-vivo hence the difficulty to directly monitor the natural progression of the disease. CSVD might progress for many years during the early stage of the disease as it remains clinically silent (or asymptomatic). Predilection among elderly individuals, CSVD has been alarmingly reported as an important precursor of full-blown stroke and vascular dementia. Growing evidences had also shown significant association between CSVD’s radiological manifestation with dementia and Alzheimer Disease (AD) pathology. Although it remains contentious as to whether CSVD is a cause or sequelae of AD, it is not far-fetched to posit that effective therapeutic measures of CSVD would mitigate the overall burden of dementia. Nevertheless, the unifying theory on the pathomechanism of the disease remains elusive, and hence the lack of effective therapeutic approaches. Thus, this Chapter would consolidate the contemporary insights from numerous experimental animal models of CSVD, to date: from the available experimental animal models of CSVD and its translational research value; the pathomechanism aspects of the disease; relevance aspects on the systems biology; opportunities for early-disease biomarkers; and lastly, converging approaches for future therapeutic directions of CSVD
Keywords: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), Animal Models, biomarkers, system biology, therapeutic
Received: 09 Dec 2018;
Accepted: 30 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Muzaimi, Nasril, Amin, Safri and Ghazali. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Mustapha Muzaimi, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kota Bharu, Malaysia, firstname.lastname@example.org