Mini Review ARTICLE
Visualizing cAMP in cardiac microdomains involved in ion homeostasis
- 1Institute of Experimental Cardiovascular Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany
- 2Astana Medical University, Kazakhstan
3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key second messenger that regulates function of proteins involved in ion homeostasis and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly appreciated that cAMP conveys its numerous effects by acting in discrete subcellular compartments or “microdomains”. In this mini review, we describe how such localized signals can be visualized in living cardiomyocytes to better understand cardiac physiology and disease. Special focus is made on targeted biosensors that can be used to resolve second messenger signals within nanometers of cardiac ion channels and transporters. Potential directions for future research and the translational importance of cAMP compartmentalization are discussed.
Keywords: cAMP, microdomains, imaging, cardiomyocyte, FRET, biosensor, ion channel
Received: 08 Aug 2019;
Accepted: 31 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Nikolaev, Dikolayev and Tuganbekov. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Viacheslav Nikolaev, Institute of Experimental Cardiovascular Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org