Impact Factor 5.122 | CiteScore 4.04
More on impact ›

Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. | doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00349

Carotid Bifurcation with Tandem Stenosis – A Patient-specific Case Study Combined in vivo Imaging, in vitro Histology and in-silico Simulation

  • 1School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
  • 2Department of Cardiology, Prince Charles Hospital, Australia
  • 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Australia
  • 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Australia
  • 5Department of Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Australia
  • 6School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, China

A patient-specific carotid bifurcation with tandem stenosis found at both internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) was studied. The in vivo pre-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) multi-spectral magnetic coherence imaging (MRI) were performed and in vitro post-CEA carotid plaque tissue sample was collected. MR imaging data and tissue sample staining histology were used to recognise the plaque components. Further, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were performed on four MR-based reconstructed 3D carotid bifurcation models (the patient-specific geometry with tandem stenosis and three presumptive geometries by removing the stenosis part), the flow and stress behaviour affected by the tandem stenosis was analysed. From the results of MR segmentation and histology analysis, plaque lipid pool and calcification were found at both ICA and CCA. From the result of CFD simulation, the flow and stress behaviour suggested the tandem stenosis as a more ‘dangerous’ situation than a single-stenosis geometry. Besides, the CFD results deduced that the stenosis at the CCA location formed initially and lead to the subsequent formation of stenosis at ICA. This study suggests that when planning CEA, CFD simulation on the presumptive models could help clinicians to estimate the blood flow behaviour after surgery. Particular attention should be paid to the case of tandem stenosis, as the local hemodynamic environment is more complex and treatment of one stenosis may lead to a variation in the hemodynamic loading on the second plaque, which may result in either a higher risk of plaque rupture or restenosis.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Carotid bifurcation, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Histology, Tandem stenosis

Received: 02 Sep 2019; Accepted: 06 Nov 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Wang, Paritala, Mendieta, Gu, Raffel, Mcgahan, Lloyd and Li. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Zhi-Yong Li, Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Brisbane, Australia,