Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell-based bone regeneration therapies: from cell transplantation and tissue engineering to therapeutic secretomes and extracellular vesicles
- 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology in the AUVA Research Center, Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (LBG), Austria
- 2Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Austria
- 3Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg, Austria
- 4Paracelsus Medical University, Austria
- 5Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology in the AUVA Research Center , Vienna , Austria, Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (LBG), Austria
Effective regeneration of bone defects often presents significant challenges, particularly in patients with decreased tissue regeneration capacity due to extensive trauma, disease, and/or advanced age. A number of studies have focused on enhancing bone regeneration by applying mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or MSC-based bone tissue engineering strategies. However, translation of these approaches from basic research findings to clinical use has been hampered by the limited understanding of MSC therapeutic actions and complexities, as well as costs related to the manufacturing, regulatory approval, and clinical use of living cells and engineered tissues. More recently, a shift from the view of MSCs directly contributing to tissue regeneration towards appreciating MSCs as “cell factories” that secrete a variety of bioactive molecules and extracellular vesicles with trophic and immunomodulatory activities has steered research into new MSC-based, “cell-free” therapeutic modalities. The current review recapitulates recent developments, challenges, and future perspectives of these various MSC-based bone tissue engineering and regeneration strategies.
Keywords: Secretome, Extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell therapy, bone tissue engineering, Bone Regeneration, Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cell (MSC)
Received: 06 Sep 2019;
Accepted: 06 Nov 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Marolt Presen, Traweger, Gimona and Redl. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Darja Marolt Presen, Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (LBG), Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology in the AUVA Research Center, Vienna, Austria, email@example.com