Are There Limitations to Exercise Benefits in Cardiovascular Disease?
- 1Physioloogy, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, United States
- 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo, United States
- 3Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, United States
Substantial evidence exists indicating that regular exercise is essential in the promotion of health and treatment of disease. In fact, overwhelming evidence from various studies has revealed that regular exercise enhances both the quality of life was well as the life expectancy of an individual, and for that reason, exercise is now referred to as a “medicine”; as a drug. Yet, a significant subset of the population dies not respond to exercise, and in some settings, the stress induced by exercise may aggravate an underlying condition, rather than attenuate chronic disease. The focus of this review is new considerations in the field of exercise physiology, particularly including research that distinguishes between intrinsic aerobic capacity, as compared to active exercise training responses, in relation to effects on biological injury generally, and cardiovascular insults specifically. Distinctions between intrinsic capacity and active exercise responses will be reviewed. The limitations of intrinsic aerobic capacity in an experimental model in recovery using both a cardiac ischemia reperfusion model, as well as a hind limb occlusion model will be summarized, as well as the impact of superimposing active exercise in the context of both injury and intrinsic capacity. These will be discussed in the content of contraindications to exercise training, especially in patients suffering from different clinical disorders. The advantages of exercise of exercise will be summarized, but like other drugs, understanding the basis for non-responders and the consequences of prescribing in that setting, as well as the impact of dosing, timing, frequency and duration on the potential for detrimental side effects also will be indicated.
Keywords: Innate, Rats, intrinsic exercise capacity, Limits, disease models
Received: 18 Jul 2018;
Accepted: 08 Nov 2018.
Edited by:Jacob Haus, University of Michigan, United States
Reviewed by:Craig A. Emter, University of Missouri, United States
Pasquale Pignatelli, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Copyright: © 2018 Zakari, Alsahly, Koch, Britton, Katwa and Lust. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Robert Lust, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Physioloogy, Greenville, 27834, NC, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org