Cytokines and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes
- 1Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, China
- 2Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Digestion and Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, China
Clear evidence indicates that cytokines, for instance, hepatokine, myokines, adipokines, osteokines and inflammatory cytokines contributing substantially to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in autocrine, paracrine and endocrine manners. Some cytokines play a positive role in metabolism action, while others play a negative metabolic role linking to the induction of metabolic dysfunction. The mechanisms involved are not fully understood, but are associated with lipid accumulation in organs and tissues especially in the liver, changes in energy metabolism, and inflammatory signals derived from various cell types, including immune cells. In this review, we describe the roles of certain cytokines in the regulation of metabolism and inter-organ signaling in regard to the pathophysiological aspects in type 2 diabetes. Given the disease-related changes in serum levels of relevant cytokines, these factors may serve as biomarkers for the early detection of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, based on preclinical studies, certain cytokines that can induce improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism and immune response may emerge as novel targets of broader and more efficacious treatments and prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Inflammation, glucose metabolism, Lipid Metabolism, Insulin Resistance, type 2 diabetes, cytokine
Received: 28 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 30 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Shi, Fan, Su and Yang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Mx. Qing Su, Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Zhen Yang, Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, email@example.com