Original Research ARTICLE
Discovery of Genomic Characteristics and Selection Signatures in Korean Indigenous Goats through Comparison of 10 Goat Breeds
- 1Genome Editing Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), South Korea
- 2KRIBB School of Bioscience, Department of Bioinformatics, Korea University of Science and Technology, South Korea
Indigenous breeds develop their own genomic characteristics by adapting to local environments or cultures over long periods of time. Most of them are not particularly productive in commercial terms, but they have abilities to survive in harsh environments or tolerate to specific diseases. Their adaptive characteristics play an important role as genetic materials for improving commercial breeds. As a step toward this goal, we analyzed the genome of Korean indigenous goat within 10 goat breeds. We collected 136 goat individuals by sequencing new 46 goats and employing publicly available 90 goats. Our whole-genome data was comprised of three indigenous breeds (Korean indigenous goat, Iranian indigenous goat, and Moroccan indigenous goat; n = 29, 18, 20), six commercial breeds (Saanen, Boer, Anglo-Nubian, British Alpine, Alpine, and Korean crossbred; n = 16, 11, 5, 5, 2, 13), and their ancestral species (Capra aegagrus; n = 17). We identified that the Iranian indigenous goat and the Moroccan indigenous goat have relatively similar genomic characteristics within a large category of genomic diversity, but found that the Korean indigenous goat has unique genomic characteristics distinguished from the other nine breeds. Through population analysis, we confirmed that these characteristics have resulted from a near-isolated environment with strong genetic drift. The Korean indigenous goat experienced a severe genetic bottleneck upon entering the Korean Peninsula about 2,000 years ago, and has subsequently, rarely experienced genetic interactions with other goat breeds. From selection analysis and gene-set enrichment analysis, we revealed selection signals for Salmonella infection and cardiomyopathy in the genome of the Korean indigenous goat. These adaptive characteristics were further identified with genomic-based evidence. We uncovered genomic regions of selective sweeps in the LBP and BPI genes (Salmonella infection) and the TTN and ITGB6 genes (cardiomyopathy), among several candidate genes. Our research presents unique genomic characteristics and distinctive selection signals of the Korean indigenous goat based on the extensive comparison. Although the adaptive traits require further validation through biological experiments, our findings are expected to provide a direction for future biodiversity conservation strategies and to contribute another option to genomic-based breeding programmes for improving the viability of Capra hircus.
Keywords: Korean indigenous goats, selection signature, Genomic characteristics, population genet ics, Capra hircus (Goat)
Received: 23 Nov 2018;
Accepted: 03 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Maria Saura, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Spain
Reviewed by:Maja Ferenčaković, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Eugenio López-Cortegano, University of Vigo, Spain
Copyright: © 2019 Kim, Jeong, Kim, Lim, Lee and Kim. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mr. Jae-Yoon Kim, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Genome Editing Research Center, Daejeon, South Korea, email@example.com