Original Research ARTICLE
Whole Genome Mapping Reveals Novel Genes and Pathways Involved in Milk Production Under Heat Stress in US Holstein Cows
- 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, United States
- 2Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Uruguay
Heat stress represents a major environmental factor that negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses to the dairy industry. Identifying and selecting animals that are thermotolerant is an attractive alternative for reducing the negative effects of heat stress on dairy cattle performance. As such, the objectives of the present study were to estimate genetic components of milk yield, fat yield and protein yield considering heat stress and to perform whole-genome scans and a subsequent gene-set analysis for identifying candidate genes and functional gene-sets implicated in milk production under heat stress conditions. Data consisted of about 250k test-day records from 17.5k Holstein cows. Multi-trait repeatability test day models with random regressions on a function of temperature-humidity index (THI) values were used for genetic analyses. The models included herd-test-day and DIM classes as fixed effects, and general and thermotolerance additive genetic and permanent environmental as random effects. Notably, thermotolerance additive genetic variances for all milk traits increased across parities suggesting that cows become more sensitive to heat stress as they age. In addition, our study revealed negative genetic correlations between general and thermotolerance effects, ranging between -0.18 to -0.68 indicating that high producing cows are more susceptible to heat. The association analysis identified at least three different genomic regions on BTA5, BTA14 and BTA15 to be strongly associated with milk production under heat stress conditions. These regions harbor candidate genes, such as HSF1, MAPK8IP1 and CDKN1B that are directly involved in heat stress response. Moreover, the gene-set analysis revealed several functional terms related to heat shock proteins, apoptosis, immune response and oxidative stress, among others. Overall, the genes and pathways identified in this study provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying dairy cow performance under heat stress conditions. Our findings point out novel opportunities for improving thermotolerance in dairy cattle through marked-assisted breeding.
Keywords: Genetic parameters, gene-set analysis, Heat shock proteins, thermotolerance, dairy cattle
Received: 19 May 2019;
Accepted: 05 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Sigdel, Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Aguilar and Peñagaricano. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Francisco Peñagaricano, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, Florida, United States, email@example.com