Original Research ARTICLE
CL-PMI: A precursor microRNA identification method based on convolutional and long short-term memory networks
- 1School of Information and Computer Science, Taiyuan University of Technology, China
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the major class of gene-regulating molecules that bind mRNAs. They function mainly as translational repressors in mammals. Therefore, how to identify miRNAs is one of the most important problems in medical treatment. Many known pre-miRNAs have a hairpin ring structure containing more structural features, and it is difficult to identify mature miRNAs because of their short length. Therefore, most research focuses on the identification of pre-miRNAs. Most computational models rely on manual feature extraction to identify pre-miRNAs and do not consider the sequential and spatial characteristics of pre-miRNAs, resulting in a loss of information. As the number of unidentified pre-miRNAs is far greater than that of known pre-miRNAs, there is a dataset imbalance problem, which leads to a degradation of the performance of pre-miRNA identification methods. In order to overcome the limitations of existing methods, we propose a pre-miRNA identification algorithm based on a cascaded CNN-LSTM framework, called CL-PMI. We used a convolutional neural network to automatically extract features and obtain pre-miRNA spatial information. We also employed long short-term memory (LSTM) to capture time characteristics of pre-miRNAs and improve attention mechanisms for long-term dependence modeling. Focal loss was used to improve the dataset imbalance. Compared with existing methods, CL-PMI achieved better performance on all datasets. The results demonstrate that this method can effectively identify pre-miRNAs by simultaneously considering their spatial and sequential information, as well as dealing with imbalance in the datasets.
Keywords: Pre-miRNA identification, Long short-term memory network, Convolutional Neural Network, deep learning, Imbalanced learning
Received: 01 May 2019;
Accepted: 10 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Wang, Ma, Dong, Li, Wang and Liu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Huiqing Wang, School of Information and Computer Science, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, China, email@example.com