THE ROLE OF TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT ON GENOMIC INSTABILITY OF MALIGNANT TUMORS
- 1Ankara University, Turkey
Genomic instability is an essential feature of cancer cells. The somatic mutation theory suggests that along with inherited ones, the changes in DNA caused by environmental factors may cause cancer. Although approximately 50-60 mutations per tumor are observed in established cancer tissue, it is known that not all of these mutations occur at the beginning of carcinogenesis but also occur later in the disease progression. The high frequency of somatic mutations referring to genomic instability contributes to the intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, and treatment resistance. The contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the mutations observed following the acquirement of essential malignant characteristics of a cancer cell is one of the topics that have been extensively investigated in recent years. The frequency of mutations in hematologic tumors is generally less than solid tumors. Although it is a hematologic tumor, multiple myeloma is more similar to solid tumors in terms of the high number of chromosomal abnormalities and genetic heterogeneity. In multiple myeloma, bone marrow microenvironment also plays a role in genomic instability that occurs in the very early stages of the disease. In this review, we will briefly summarize the role of the tumor microenvironment and bone marrow microenvironment on the genomic instability seen in solid tumors and multiple myeloma.
Keywords: Genomic Instability, tumor microenvironement, Bone Marrow, Multiple Myeloma, Cancer
Received: 17 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 03 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Sonugur and Akbulut. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Hakan Akbulut, Ankara University, Ankara, 06100, Ankara, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org