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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Genet. | doi: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01163


Jamal S. Sabir1, Abdelfatteh E. Omri1,  Babajan Banaganapalli1, Majed A. Al-Shaeri1, Naser A. Alkenani1, Mumdooh J. Sabir1, Nahid H. Hajrah1, Houda Zrelli1, Lukasz Ciesla2,  Ramu Elango1,  Noor A. Shaik1* and  Mohammed Arbazkhan1*
  • 1King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
  • 2University of Alabama, United States

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic synovial auto-inflammatory disease that destructs the cartilage and bone, leading to disability. The functional regulation of major immunity related pathways like NF-kB which is involved in the chronic inflammatory reactions underlying the development of RA remains to be explored. Therefore, this study has adopted statistical and knowledge based systemic investigations (like gene correlation, semantic similarity and topological parameters based on graph theory) to study the gene expression status of NF-kB protein family (NKPF) and its regulators in synovial tissues to trace the molecular pathways through which these regulators contributes to RA. A complex Protein-Protein Interaction Map (PPIM) of 2742 genes and 37032 interactions was constructed from differentially expressed significant genes (p value ≤ 0.05). PPIM was further decomposed into a Regulator Allied Protein Interaction Network, RAPIN, based on the interaction between genes (5 NKPF, 31 seed, 131 hubs and 652 bottleneck). Pathway network analysis has shown the RA specific disturbances in the functional connectivity between seed genes (RIPK1, ATG7, TLR4, TNFRSF1A, KPNA1, CFLAR, SNW1, FOSB, PARVA, CX3CL1 and TRPC6) and NKPF members (RELA, RELB, NFKB2 and REL). Interestingly, these genes are known for their involvement in inflammation and immune systems (signaling by Interleukins, Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, NOD-like receptor signaling, MAPK signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling and TNF signaling) pathways connected to RA. This study for the first-time reports that SNW1 along with other NK regulatory genes plays an important role in RA pathogenesis and might act as potential biomarker for RA. Additionally the proposed genes might play important roles in RA pathogenesis, as well as facilitate the development of effective targeted therapies. Our integrative data analysis and network-based methods could accelerate the identification of novel drug targets for RA from high throughput genomic data.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis - Rheumatoid arthritis, gene expression analsysis, GEO database, NFkB, Auto immune diseases

Received: 24 Jul 2019; Accepted: 23 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Sabir, Omri, Banaganapalli, Al-Shaeri, Alkenani, Sabir, Hajrah, Zrelli, Ciesla, Elango, Shaik and Arbazkhan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Noor A. Shaik, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Makkah, Saudi Arabia,
Dr. Mohammed Arbazkhan, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Makkah, Saudi Arabia,