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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00186

Fungal Deoxynivalenol-induced Enterocyte Distress is Attenuated by Adulterated Adlay: In vitro Evidences for Mucoactive Counteraction

  • 1Pusan National University, South Korea

Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. Based on an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury. In particular, adlay suppressed DON-induced pro-inflammatory signals such as mitogen-activated kinase transduction and the epidermal growth factor receptor-linked pathway. In addition to regulation of pro-inflammatory responses, adlay treatment interfered with DON-induced disruption of the epithelial barrier. Mechanistically, adlay could boost activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and cytosolic translocation of human antigen R (HuR) protein, which played critical roles in the epithelial restitution, resulting in protection against disruption of enterocyte barrier integrity. Notably, DON abrogated the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) GTPase-mediated actin cytoskeletal network, which was diminished by adlay treatment in PKC and HuR-dependent ways. Taken together, the present study provides evidences for adlay-based attenuation of trichothecene-induced gut distress, implicating potential use of a new gut protector against enteropathogenic insults in diets.

Keywords: Adlay, Gut barrier, Deoxynivalenol, Inflammation, wound

Received: 23 Sep 2017; Accepted: 22 Jan 2018.

Edited by:

Zorica D. Juranic, Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Serbia

Reviewed by:

Ivana Z. Matic, Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Serbia
STEFANIA MARZOCCO, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy
Sandra Aranđelović, Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Serbia  

Copyright: © 2018 DU and MOON. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. YUSEOK MOON, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea,