Mini Review ARTICLE
The contribution of gut barrier changes to multiple sclerosis pathophysiology
- 1Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
- 2Department of Neurosciences Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
- 3Department of Neurosciences Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
- 4Dipartimento di Neurologia e Psichiatria, Università di Sapienza di Roma, Italy
- 5Department of Human Science and Promotion of Quality of Life, San Raffaele Telematic University, Italy
- 6Mediterranean Neurological Institute (IRCCS), Italy
The gut barrier consists of several components, including the mucus layer, made of mucins and anti-bacterial molecule, the epithelial cells, connected by tight junction proteins, and a mixed population of cells involved in the interplay with microbes, such as M cells, elongations of “antigen presenting cells” dwelling the lamina propria, intraepithelial lymphocytes and Paneth cells secreting anti-bacterial peptides.
Recently, the influence of intestinal permeability (IP) changes on organs far from gut has been investigated, and IP changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described. A related topic is the microbiota dysfunction that underpins the development of neuroinflammation in animal models and human diseases, including MS.
It becomes now of interest to better understand the mechanisms through which IP changes contribute to pathophysiology of neuroinflammation. The following aspects seem of relevance: studies on other biomarker of IP alterations; the relationship with known risk factor for MS development, such as vitamin D deficiency; the link between blood brain barrier and gut barrier breakdown; the effects of IP increase on microbial translocation and microglial activation; the parallel patterns of IP and neuroimmune changes in MS and neuropsychiatric disorders, that afflict a sizable proportion of patients with MS.
The therapeutic implications of IP changes will be also discussed, considering the impact of MS-modifying therapies on gut barrier, as well as potential approaches to enhance or protect IP homeostasis
Keywords: Gut barrier, intestinal permeability, microbiota, Multiple Sclerosis, neuro-inflammatory diseases
Received: 01 May 2019;
Accepted: 29 Jul 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Buscarinu, Fornasiero, Romano, Ferraldeschi, Mechelli, Reniè, Morena, Romano, Pellicciari, Landi, Salvetti and Ristori. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Marco Salvetti, Department of Neurosciences Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Giovanni Ristori, Department of Neurosciences Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, email@example.com