Original Research ARTICLE
Urinary Virome perturbations in kidney transplantation
- 1Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, United States
- 2Erasmus Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
- 3Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (DOE), United States
The human microbiome is important for health and plays a role in essential metabolic functions and protection from certain pathogens. Conversely, dysbiosis of the microbiome is seen in the context of various diseases. Recent studies have highlighted that a complex microbial community containing hundreds of bacteria colonizes the healthy urinary tract, but little is known about the human urinary viruses in health and disease. To evaluate the human urinary virome in the context of kidney transplantation (tx), variations in the composition of the urinary virome were evaluated in urine samples from normal healthy volunteers as well as patients with kidney disease after they had undergone kidney tx. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis was undertaken on a selected cohort of 142 kidney tx patients and normal healthy controls, from a larger biobank of 770 kidney biopsy matched urine samples. In addition to analysis of normal healthy control urine, the cohort of kidney tx patients had biopsy confirmed phenotype classification, coincident with the urine sample analyzed, of stable grafts (STA), acute rejection (AR), BK virus nephritis (BKVN) and chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). We identified 37 unique viruses, 29 of which are being identified for the first time in human urine samples. The composition of the human urinary virome differs in health and kidney injury, and the distribution of viral proteins in the urinary tract may be further impacted by IS exposure, diet and environmental, dietary or cutaneous exposure to various insecticides and pesticides.
Keywords: Kidney Transplantation, virome, Urine, Proteomics, biomarkers
Received: 11 Jul 2017;
Accepted: 02 Mar 2018.
Edited by:Robert P. Woroniecki, Stony Brook Children's Hospital, United States
Reviewed by:Gaurav Gupta, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States
David T. Pride, University of California, San Diego, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Mercer, Sigdel, Nandoe, Nicora, Burnum-Johnson, Qian and Sarwal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Minnie M. Sarwal, University of California, San Francisco, Surgery, San Francisco, United States, email@example.com