Brief Research Report ARTICLE
Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper in lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation.
- 1Indiana University, Purdue University Indianapolis, United States
- 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, United States
- 3Indiana University School of Dentistry, United States
Glucocorticoids (GC) are steroid hormones secreted as the end-product of the neuroendocrine stress cascade. Both absence and elevated GC mediate neurotoxic responses, suggesting that a narrow window ranging from physiological to slightly high GC mediate protective responses. The beneficial effects of GC are attributed to the transactivation of regulatory proteins and inhibition mediated by glucocorticoid receptor interactions with other co-factors. The glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a gene strongly upregulated by GC and mediates many of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of GC. Although GILZ is constitutively expressed in many tissues including the brain, the expression has been shown to occur with varying dynamics suggesting that the local milieu modulates its expression with consequent effects on cellular responses. Here we investigated the expression profile of GILZ in lipopolysaccharide mediated neuroinflammation model of Alzheimer’s disease. Our data suggest that the GILZ expression is downregulated in neuroinflammation correlating inversely with the pro-inflammatory cytokines and innate immune responses.
Keywords: Neuroinflammation, Glucocorticoids, Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper, immune response, Toll like receptor
Received: 28 Aug 2018;
Accepted: 17 Dec 2018.
Edited by:Merce Pallas, University of Barcelona, Spain
Reviewed by:Kaoru Tominaga, Jichi Medical University, Japan
Cristoforo Scavone, University of São Paulo, Brazil
Copyright: © 2018 Witek, Hickman, Lahiri and Srinivasan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Mythily Srinivasan, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org