Original Research ARTICLE
Parkinson’s disease: a systemic inflammatory disease accompanied by bacterial inflammagens
- 1Stellenbosch University, South Africa
- 2University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease with a strong association established with systemic inflammation. Recently, the role of the gingipains protease group from Porphyromonas gingivalis was implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and here we present evidence, using a fluorescent antibody to detect gingipain R1 (RgpA), of it’s presence in a PD population. We confirm previous findings regarding PD systemic inflammation via multiplex cytokine analysis, demonstrate hypercoagulation using thromboelastography (TEG), confocal- and electron microscopy. To further elucidate the action of this gingipain, as well as of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P. gingivalis, low concentrations of recombinant RgpA and LPS were added to purified fluorescent fibrinogen. In our PD and control blood analysis, our results show increased hypercoagulation, the presence of amyloid formation in plasma, and profound ultrastructural changes to platelets. Biomarker analysis confirmed significantly increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines. Our laboratory analysis of purified fibrinogen with added RgpA, and/or LPS, showed preliminary data with regards to the actions of the protease and the bacterial membrane inflammagen on plasma proteins.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Systemic Inflammation and Sepsis, Bacterial Inflammagens, Gingipains, Hypercoagulation, LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis, Cytokines
Received: 14 May 2019;
Accepted: 26 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Simone Engelender, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Reviewed by:Liu Jun, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Rebecca L. Cunningham, University of North Texas Health Science Center, United States
Copyright: © 2019 Pretorius, Adams, Nunes, Page, Roberts, Carr, Nell and Kell. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Etheresia Pretorius, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, email@example.com