Pharmacological targeting of microglial activation: new therapeutic approach
- 1Department of Neurology, First Hospital of Jilin University, China
- 2Department of Life Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, China
Mounting evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is not just a consequence but a vital contributor to the development and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglia in particular, may contribute to the induction and modulation of inflammation in PD. Upon stimulation, microglia convert into activated phenotypes, which exist along a dynamic continuum and bear different immune properties depending on the disease stage and severity. Activated microglia release various factors involved in neuroinflammation, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and prostaglandins (PGs). Further, activated microglia interact with other cell types (e.g. neurons, astrocytes and mast cells) and are closely associated with α-synuclein (α-syn) pathophysiology and iron homeostasis disturbance. Taken together, microglial activation and microglia-mediated inflammatory responses play essential roles in the pathogenesis of PD and elucidation of the complexity and imbalance of microglial activation may shed light on novel therapeutic approaches for PD.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Microglia, Neuroinflammation, microglial activation, polarization
Received: 21 Aug 2019;
Accepted: 31 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Liu, Wang, Liu and Zhang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
MD. Caiyun Liu, Department of Neurology, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, Jilin Province, China, email@example.com
MD, PhD. Hongliang Zhang, Department of Neurology, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, Jilin Province, China, firstname.lastname@example.org