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Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00114

Deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration impacts manual dexterity in probable developmental coordination disorder

 Satoshi Nobusako1, 2*, Ayami Sakai3, Taeko Tsujimoto4, Takashi Shuto5, Yuki Nishi6, Daiki Asano7, Emi Furukawa8, Michihiro Osumi1, 2,  Sotaro Shimada9,  Shu Morioka1, 2 and  Akio Nakai10
  • 1Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Japan
  • 2Graduate School of Health Science, Kio University, Japan
  • 3Department of Rehabilitation, Higashiosaka Yamaji Hospital, Japan
  • 4Department of Rehabilitation, Nanso-no-Sato, Nursing Care Insurance Facilities, Japan
  • 5Department of Rehabilitation, Nogami Hospital, Japan
  • 6Department of Home-Visit Rehabilitation, Ishida Clinic, Japan
  • 7Department of Rehabilitation, Japan Baptist Hospital, Japan
  • 8Faculty of Education, Kio University, Japan
  • 9Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Japan
  • 10Hyogo Children's Sleep and Development Medical Research Center, Japan

The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror neuron system in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model, and automatic-imitation function in the mirror neuron system differs between children with developmental coordination disorder and those with typical development. The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable developmental coordination disorder group or typical development group. The former was comprised of 29 children with clumsy manual dexterity, while the latter consisted of 42 children with normal manual dexterity. Visuo-motor temporal integration ability and automatic imitation function were measured using the delayed visual feedback detection task and motor interference task, respectively. Further, the current study investigated whether autism spectrum disorder, depressive symptoms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits differed among the two groups, since these symptoms are frequent comorbidities of developmental coordination disorder. In addition, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to extract factors affecting clumsy manual dexterity. In the results, the delay detection threshold and steepness of the delay detection probability curve, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration ability, were significantly prolonged and decreased, respectively, in children with probable developmental coordination disorder. The interference effect, which indicated automatic-imitation function, was also significantly reduced in this group. These results highlighted that children with clumsy manual dexterity have deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration and automatic imitation function. There was a significant correlation between manual dexterity, and measures of visuo-motor temporal integration, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits and autism spectrum disorder. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the delay detection threshold, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration, was the greatest predictor of poor manual dexterity. The current results supported and provided further evidence for the internal model deficit hypothesis. Further, they suggested a neurorehabilitation technique that improved visuo-motor temporal integration could be therapeutically effective for children with developmental coordination disorder.

Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Automatic Imitation, developmental coordination disorder, internal model, manual dexterity, mirror neuron system, visuo-motor temporal integration

Received: 05 Oct 2017; Accepted: 14 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Andrea Guzzetta, University of Pisa, Italy

Reviewed by:

Kumar Sannagowdara, Medical College of Wisconsin, United States
Katrijn Klingels, KU Leuven, Belgium  

Copyright: © 2018 Nobusako, Sakai, Tsujimoto, Shuto, Nishi, Asano, Furukawa, Osumi, Shimada, Morioka and Nakai. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Satoshi Nobusako, Kio University, Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Koryo, Nara, Japan,