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Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00485

Hyperchloremia is Associated with Poorer Outcome in Critically Ill Stroke Patients

 Kaibin Huang1, Yanhong Hu1,  Yongming Wu1, Zhong Ji1, Shengnan Wang1, Zhenzhou Lin1 and  Suyue Pan1*
  • 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, China

Background and Purpose: This study aims to explore the cause and predictive value of hyperchloremia in critically ill stroke patients.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of adult patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) admitted to the neurointensive care unit (NICU) of a university-affiliated hospital, between Jan 2013 and Dec 2016. Patients were excluded if admitted beyond 72 hours from onset, if they required neurocritical care for less than 72 hours, and were treated with hypertonic saline within 72 hours, or had creatinine clearance less than 15 mL/min.
Results: Of 405 eligible patients, the prevalence of hyperchloremia ([Cl-] ≥ 110 mmol/L) was 8.6% at NICU admission ([Cl-]0) and 17.0% within 72 hours ([Cl-]max). 38 (9.4%) patients had new-onset hyperchloremia and 110 (27.1%) had moderate increase in chloride (△[Cl-] ≥ 5 mmol/L; △[Cl-] = [Cl-]max - [Cl-]0) in the first 72 hours after admission, which were found to be determined by the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Neither total fluid input nor cumulative fluid balance had significant association with such chloride disturbance. New-onset hyperchloremia and every 5 mmol/L increment in △[Cl-] were both associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality and 6-month poor outcome, although no independent significance was found in multivariate models.
Conclusions: Hyperchloremia tends to occur in patients more severely affected by- AIS and ICH. Although no independent association was found, new-onset hyperchloremia and every 5 mmol/L increment in △[Cl-] were related to poorer outcome in critically ill AIS and ICH patients .

Keywords: hyperchloremia;, neurocritical care, Mortality, Poor prognosis, Fluid management

Received: 06 Mar 2018; Accepted: 04 Jun 2018.

Edited by:

Liping Liu, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China

Reviewed by:

Rick Gill, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, United States
Christoph Stretz, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, United States
Yuchuan Ding, Wayne State University School of Medicine, United States  

Copyright: © 2018 Huang, Hu, Wu, Ji, Wang, Lin and Pan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Suyue Pan, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, pansuyue82@126.com