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Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Neurol. | doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00554

Biomarkers in Inflammatory myopathies – an expanded definition

 Werner Stenzel1*,  Olivier Benveniste2 and Hans H. Goebel1
  • 1Charité Medical University of Berlin, Germany
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunlogy, Sorbonne Universités, France

Biomarkers as parameters of pathophysiological conditions can be of outmost relevance for inflammatory myopathies. They are particularly warranted to inform about diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic questions. As biomarkers become more and more relevant in daily routine, this review focusses on relevant aspects particularly addressing myopathological features. However, the level of evidence to use them in daily routine at presence is low, still since none of them has been validated in large cohorts of patients and rarely in independent biopsy series. Hence, they should be read as mere expert opinions. The evaluation of biomarkers as well as key biological parameters is an ongoing process, and we start learning about relevance of them, as we must recognize that pathophysiology of myositis is biologically incompletely understood. As such this approach should be considered an essay towards expansion of the definition ‘biomarker’ to myositis, an emerging field of interest in biomedical research.

Keywords: IIM, MSA, MAA, DM, IMNM, IBM, Myositis, anti-synthetase antibodies, Autoantibodies, biomarker, morphology

Received: 18 Dec 2018; Accepted: 08 May 2019.

Edited by:

Massimiliano Filosto, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale of the Spedali Civili of Brescia, Italy

Reviewed by:

Paola Sandroni, Mayo Clinic, United States
Ingrid Lundberg, Karolinska Institute (KI), Sweden  

Copyright: © 2019 Stenzel, Benveniste and Goebel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Werner Stenzel, Charité Medical University of Berlin, Berlin, 10117, Berlin, Germany,