Spinal cord stimulation for freezing of gait: from the bench to the bedside
- 1Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Brazil
- 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil
- 3Center of Mathematics, Computation and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, Brazil
- 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of ABC, Brazil
- 5Harquail Centre for Neuromodulation, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Canada
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used for the treatment of chronic pain for nearly four decades. With a high degree of efficacy and a low incidence of adverse events, it is now considered to be a suitable therapeutic alternative in most guidelines. Experimental studies suggest that SCS may also be used as a therapy for motor and gait dysfunction in parkinsonian states. The most common and disabling gait dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is freezing of gait (FoG). We review the evolution of SCS for gait disorders from bench to bedside and discuss potential mechanisms of action, neural substrates and clinical outcomes.
Keywords: Parkinson, Spinal cord stimulation (SCS), Neuromodulation, Gait, freezing of gait (FOG), Freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease, Balance (static), Brain oscillation patterns, Microstate
Received: 30 Jan 2019;
Accepted: 05 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Fonoff, De Lima-Pardini, Coelho, Mônaco, Machado, Pinto de Souza, Ghilardi and Hamani. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Clement Hamani, Harquail Centre for Neuromodulation, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada, firstname.lastname@example.org