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Front. Neurosci. | doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00808

Closed-Loop Implantable Therapeutic Neuromodulation Systems based on Neurochemical Monitoring

 Khalid B. Mirza1, 2*, Caroline Golden2, 3,  Konstantin Nikolic2, 3 and Christofer Toumazou2, 3
  • 1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Imperial College London, Centre for Bio Inspired Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
  • 2Imperial College London, United Kingdom
  • 3Centre for Bio Inspired Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

3 Closed-loop or intelligent neuromodulation allows adjustable, personalised neuromodulation
4 which usually incorporates recording of some biomarker, followed by implementation of an
5 algorithm which decides the timing (when ?) and strength (how much ?) of stimulation.
6 Closed-loop neuromodulation has been shown to have greater benefits compared to open loop
7 neuromodulation, particularly for therapeutic applications such as pharmacoresistant epilepsy,
8 movement disorders and potentially for psychological disorders such as depression or drug
9 addiction. However, an important aspect of the technique is selection of an appropriate, preferably
10 neural biomarker. Neurochemical sensing can provide high resolution biomarker monitoring for
11 various neurological disorders as well as provide deeper insight into neurological mechanisms.
12 The chemicals of interest being measured, could be ions such as potassium (K+), sodium
13 (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), chloride (Cl􀀀), hydrogen (H+) or neurotransmitters such as dopamine,
14 serotonin, glutamate. This review focusses on the different building blocks necessary for a
15 neurochemical, closed-loop neuromodulation system such as biomarkers, sensors and data
16 processing algorithms. Furthermore, it also highlights the merits and demerits of using this
17 biomarker modality.

Keywords: Neurochemical biomarkers, neurochemical sensing, Closed Loop Neuromodulation, Vagus nerve stimulation (vns), deep brain stimulation (DBS), Neurochemometrics

Received: 10 Dec 2018; Accepted: 19 Jul 2019.

Edited by:

Olivier David, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), France

Reviewed by:

Russell J. Andrews, Independent researcher
Maria Teresa Fiorenza, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Hoon-Ki Min, Mayo Clinic, United States
Ali Yadollahpour, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran  

Copyright: © 2019 Mirza, Golden, Nikolic and Toumazou. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Khalid B. Mirza, Centre for Bio Inspired Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College London, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, k.mirza@imperial.ac.uk