Extracellular vesicles; how drug and pathology interfere with their biogenesis and function
- 1Università degli Studi di Udine, Italy
- 2Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy
- 3University of Trieste, Italy
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are at the center of an intense activity of investigation, both for their possible employment as biomarkers of ongoing pathologic processes and for their broad range of biological activities. EV can promote tissue repair in very different pathologic settings, including hindlimb and myocardial ischemia. Importantly, the exact mode of action of EV is still partly understood, since they may act by modulating growth factors and cytokines, signaling pathways, and by transferring non-coding RNAs to target cells. However, the term EV identifies cell derived, enveloped particles very heterogeneous in size, composition, and biogenesis. Therefore, part of the controversies on the biological effects exerted by EV are a consequence of differences in methods of separation that result in the enrichment of different entities. Since technical challenges still hamper the highly specific sorting of different EV subpopulations, up to now only few investigators have tried to verify differences in the biological effects of specific EV subtypes. This review summarizes the current state of the art on the comprehension of mechanisms involved in EV biogenesis and release, which is a prerequisite for understanding and investigating the impact that pathology and drug therapy may exert on the secretion and composition of EV. Finally, we described both the mechanism involved in the modulation of EV secretion by drugs commonly used in patients affected by heart failure, and how pathophysiological mechanisms involved in heart disease modify EV secretion.
Keywords: extracellular vesicles, Exosomes, non coding RNA, miRNA, Heart Failure, pharmacological therapy
Received: 05 May 2018;
Accepted: 13 Sep 2018.
Edited by:Vincenzo Lionetti, Scuola Sant'Anna di Studi Avanzati, Italy
Reviewed by:Lucio Barile, Cardiocentro Ticino, Switzerland
Mihaela Gherghiceanu, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania
Khaled Qanud, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Cesselli, Parisse, Aleksova, Veneziano, Cervellin, Zanello and Beltrami. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Università degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org