Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
A new look at the functional organization of the Golgi ribbon
- 1University of Bergen, Norway
- 2University of Oslo, Norway
A characteristic feature of vertebrate cells is a Golgi ribbon consisting of multiple cisternal stacks connected into a single-copy organelle next to the centrosome. Despite numerous studies the mechanisms that link the stacks together and the functional significance of ribbon formation remain poorly understood. Nevertheless, these questions are of considerable interest, since there is increasing evidence that Golgi fragmentation – the unlinking of the stacks in the ribbon – is intimately connected not only to normal physiological processes, such as cell division and migration, but also to pathological states, including neurodegeneration and cancer. Challenging a commonly held view that ribbon architecture involves the formation of homotypic tubular bridges between the Golgi stacks, we present an alternative model, based on direct interaction between the biosynthetic (pre-Golgi) and endocytic (post-Golgi) membrane networks and their connection with the centrosome. We propose that the central domains of these permanent pre- and post-Golgi networks function together in the biogenesis and maintenance of the more transient Golgi stacks, and thereby establish “linker compartments” that dynamically join the stacks together. This model provides insight into the reversible fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon that takes place in dividing and migrating cells and its regulation along a cell surface - Golgi - centrosome axis. Moreover, it helps to understand transport pathways that either traverse or bypass the Golgi stacks and the positioning of the Golgi apparatus in differentiated neuronal, epithelial and muscle cells.
Keywords: Golgi ribbon, Mitosis, cell migration, Cell Differentiation, Golgi bypass, Centrosome, intermediate compartment (IC), recycling endosome (RE)
Received: 10 May 2019;
Accepted: 07 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Daniel Ungar, University of York, United Kingdom
Reviewed by:Brian Storrie, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, United States
Alexandre A. Mironov, Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (FIRC), Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Saraste and Prydz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Jaakko Saraste, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, email@example.com
Prof. Kristian Prydz, University of Oslo, Oslo, 0316, Oslo, Norway, firstname.lastname@example.org