Original Research ARTICLE
High-throughput Detection of Bacterial Community and its Drug-resistance profiling from Local Reclaimed Wastewater Plants
- 1University of South Florida, United States
- 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, United States
- 3Center for Research and Education in Nanobioengineering, Morsani College of Medicine, USF Health, United States
- 4Morsani College of Medicine, USF Health, United States
- 5College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Florida, United States
- 6College of Public Health, University of South Florida, United States
- 7Other, United States
Treated wastewater from reclaimed facilities (WWTP) has become a reusable source for a variety of applications, such as agricultural irrigation. However, it is also a potential reservoir of clinically-relevant multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, including ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus surrogates, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species along with the emerging nosocomial Escherchia strains). This study was performed to decipher the bacterial community structure through Illumina high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and to determine the resistance profile using the Sensititre antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) conform to clinical lab standards (NCCLS). Out of 1747 bacterial strains detected from wastewater influent and effluent, Pseudomonas was the most predominant genus related to ESKAPE in influent, with sequence reads corresponding to 21.356%, followed by Streptococcus (6.445%), Acinetobacter (0.968%), Enterococcus (0.063%), Klebsiella (0.038%), Eshcerichia (0.028%) and Staphylococcus (0.004%). Despite the different treatment methods used, the effluent still revealed the presence of some Pseudomonas strains (0.066%), and a wide range of gram-positive cocci, including Staphylococcus (0.194%), Streptococcus (0.63%) and Enterococcus (0.037%), in addition to gram-negative Acinetobacter (0.736%), Klebsiella (0.1%), and Escherichia sub-species (0.811%). The AST results indicated that the strains, Escherichia along with Klebsiella and Acinetobacter isolated from the effluent displayed resistance to 11 antibiotics, while Pseudomonas was resistant to 7 antibiotics, and Streptococcus along with Staphylococcus were resistant to 9 antibiotics. Results herein, proved the existence of some nosocomial MDR pathogens, known for ESKAPE, with potential drug resistance transfer to the non-pathogen microbes, requiring targeted remediation.
Keywords: Treated wastewater, Drug resisetance, multiple, pathogens, bacterial community structure, Wastewater treament
Received: 07 May 2019;
Accepted: 07 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Max MAURIN, Université Grenoble Alpes, France
Reviewed by:M. J. Alam, University of Houston, United States
Maria Ines Z. Sato, Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), Brazil
Copyright: © 2019 Limayem, Wasson, Pokhrel, Mehta, Nguyen, Patil and Nayak. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Alya Limayem, University of South Florida, Tampa, United States, email@example.com