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Classic and Pleiotropic Actions of Vitamin D

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Front. Endocrinol. | doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00042

Nordic Walking training causes a decrease in blood cholesterol in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D

Krzysztof Prusik1,  Jakub Kortas1,  Katarzyna Prusik1,  Jan Mieszkowski2,  Joanna Jaworska3, Wojciech Skrobot4, Marcin Lipinski5,  Ewa Ziemann3 and  Jedrzej Antosiewicz6, 7*
  • 1Department of Health Promotion, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
  • 2Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland
  • 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
  • 4Department of Kinesiology, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
  • 5Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Gdańsk Medical University, Poland
  • 6Department of Bioenergetics and Physiology of Exercise, Gdańsk Medical University, Poland
  • 7Department of Biochemistry, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland

Objective
Different studies have demonstrated that regular exercise can induce changes in the lipid profile, but results remain inconclusive. Available data suggest that correction of vitamin D deficiency can improve the lipid profile. In this study, we have hypothesized that Nordic walking training will improve lipid profile in elderly women supplemented with vitamin D.
Methods
The total of 109 elderly women (68 ± 5.12 years old) took part in the study. First group (Experimental:EG, 35 women) underwent 12 weeks of Nordic Walking training combined with vitamin D supplementation (4000 IU per day), second group (Supplementation: SG, 48 women) was only supplemented with vitamin D (4000 IU per day), and third group (Control: CG, 31 women) was not subject to any interventions. . Blood analysis of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C, 25-OH-D3 was performed at baseline and after the 12 weeks of Nordic Walking training. Additionally, a battery of field tests specifically developed for older adults was used to assess the components of functional fitness. The same blood analysis was repeated for the EG six months after the main experiment.
Results
After 12 weeks of NW training and vitamin D supplementation, in the EG a decrease in TC, LDL-C and TG was observed. In the SG, no changes in the lipid profile were observed, whereas in the CG an increase in the level of HDL was noticed. Positive physical fitness changes were only observed in the EG.
Conclusion
Our obtained data confirmed baseline assumption that regular exercise induce positive alternations in lipid profile in elderly women supported by supplementation of vitamin D.


Key words: physical fitness, LDL, HDL, health training

Keywords: Physical Fitness, LDL, HDL, Health training, TG

Received: 23 Nov 2017; Accepted: 01 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Pawel Pludowski, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Poland

Reviewed by:

Giorgos K. Sakkas, University of St Mark and St John, United Kingdom
Pawel Abramowicz, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland  

Copyright: © 2018 Prusik, Kortas, Prusik, Mieszkowski, Jaworska, Skrobot, Lipinski, Ziemann and Antosiewicz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Jedrzej Antosiewicz, Gdańsk Medical University, Department of Bioenergetics and Physiology of Exercise, Debinki 1, Gdańsk, 80-211, Poland, jant@gumed.edu.pl