Original Research ARTICLE
The Nomogram of Penile Length and Circumference in Iranian Term and Preterm Neonates
- 1Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 2Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 3Department of Pediatrics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 4Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 5Pars Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 6Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- 7Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Background and objectives: The normal length of penis in preterm and term neonates are different among different nations, and is affected by various factors. The present study aimed to determine stretched penile length (SPL) values and cutoff level of micropenis in term and preterm Iranian neonates, for the first time.
Materials and methods: All male neonates born in two general hospitals of Tehran (Akbarabadi, and Rasoul hospitals), center of Iran, with gestational age of 28-42 weeks were included and their SPL and penile circumference (PC) were examinedon the first three days after birth by the same physician. Birth weight (BW), and height, gestational age, type of delivery, mother’s age, twin/multiple pregnancy, drug and medical history of mother during pregnancywere recorded and cutoff levels of two variables were calculated based on the collected variables for different gestational ages.
Results: Among a total of 587 neonates, 203 neonates were born term and 384 preterm. Mean ±SD of neonates’ BW were 2682.51±739.30 (850-4800) gr. Mean ± SD of their SPL was 22.48±3.34 mm; 25.92±1.54 mm in term and 20.66±2.50 mm in preterm infants (P=0.001). Mean ± SD of penile circumference was 6.71±1.31 mm; 8.14±0.48 in term and 5.96±0.92 in preterm infants (P=0.001). SPL and PC were significantly correlated with type of delivery, number of parity, gestational age, BW, and crown-heel length, head circumference (P<0.001).
Conclusion: This study suggested the first smoothed percentile values (±1, 2, and 3SD) of stretched penile length correlated with gestational age that can be used as a reference for Iranian newborns.
Keywords: nomogram, Iran, Penis agenesis, Regression Analysis, Stretched penile length, Penile Circumference
Received: 05 Jan 2018;
Accepted: 13 Mar 2018.
Edited by:John L. Yovich, Pivet Medical Center, Australia
Reviewed by:Chak-Lam Cho, Union Hospital, Hong Kong
Michelle Welsh, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Copyright: © 2018 Soheilipour, Zaheriani, Dehkordi, IsaTafreshi, Rohani, Jesmi and Salehiniya. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Hamid Salehiniya, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran, email@example.com