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Novel Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetes

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Front. Endocrinol. | doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00180

miRNA, proteins and metabolites as novel biomarkers for pre-diabetes, diabetes and related complications

  • 1National Centre for Cell Science, India

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is no more a lifestyle disease of developed countries. It has emerged as a major health problem worldwide including developing countries. However, how diabetes could be detected at an early stage (Prediabetes) to prevent the progression of disease is still unclear. Currently used biomarkers like glycated haemoglobin and assessment of blood glucose level have their own limitations. These classical markers can be detected when the disease is already established. Prognosis of disease at early stages and prediction of population at higher risk require identification of specific markers that are sensitive enough to be detected at early stages of disease. Biomarkers which could predict the risk of disease in people will be useful for developing preventive/proactive therapies to those individuals who are at higher risk of developing the disease. Recent studies suggested that expression of biomolecules including; miRNAs, proteins and metabolites specifically change during progression of T2DM and related complications, suggestive of disease pathology. Owing to their omnipresence in body fluids and their association with onset, progression and pathogenesis of T2DM, these biomolecules can be potential biomarker for prognosis, diagnosis and management of disease. In this article, we summarize biomolecules that could be potential biomarkers and their signature changes associated with T2DM and related complications during disease pathogenesis.

Keywords: miRNA, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, biomarkers, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Received: 30 Nov 2017; Accepted: 04 Apr 2018.

Edited by:

Sandeep Singh, Central University of Punjab, India

Reviewed by:

Chen Chen, The University of Queensland, Australia
Daniela P. Foti, Università degli studi Magna Græcia di Catanzaro, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Vaishya, Sarwade and Seshadri. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Vasudevan Seshadri, National Centre for Cell Science, Pune, India, seshadriv@nccs.res.in