Original Research ARTICLE
Liver enzymes in early to mid-pregnancy, insulin resistance, and gestational diabetes risk: A longitudinal analysis
- 1Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, United States
Background: Liver enzymes may be implicated in glucose homeostasis; liver enzymes progressively change during pregnancy but longitudinal data during pregnancy in relation to insulin resistance and gestational diabetes (GDM) risk are lacking. We investigated longitudinal associations of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with insulin secretion and resistance markers across early to mid-pregnancy and subsequent GDM risk.
Methods: Within the prospective Pregnancy Environment and Lifestyle Study cohort, 117 GDM cases were ascertained and matched to 232 non-GDM controls in a nested case-control study. Fasting blood samples were collected at two clinic visits (CV1, gestational weeks 10-13; CV2, gestational weeks 16-19). Linear mixed model and conditional logistic regression were used, adjusting for major risk factors for GDM.
Results: In repeated measure analysis, after adjusting for confounders including body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, GGT per standard deviation increment was associated with elevated fasting glucose and HOMA-IR (% change = 1.51%, 95% CI 0.56-2.46% and 7.43%, 95% CI 1.76-13.11%, respectively) and decreased adiponectin (% change = -2.86%, 95% CI -5.53 to -0.20%) from CV1 to CV2. At CV1 and CV2, GGT levels comparing the highest versus lowest quartile were associated with 3.01-fold (95% CI 1.32-6.85) and 3.51-fold (95% CI 1.37-8.97) increased risk of GDM, respectively. Progressively increased (
Conclusion: Elevated levels of GGT in early and mid-pregnancy, even within the conventional normal range, and its progressive increase from early to mid-pregnancy may be implicated in the pathogenesis of GDM, highlighting its potential to inform early screening or preventive strategies to mitigate subsequent risk of GDM.
Keywords: gestational diabetes, liver enzymes, Longitudinal associations, Pregnancy, repeated measures
Received: 18 Apr 2018;
Accepted: 13 Sep 2018.
Edited by:Wei Bao, University of Iowa, United States
Reviewed by:Zhong-Cheng Luo, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada
Xilin Yang, Tianjin Medical University, China
Copyright: © 2018 Zhu, Hedderson, Quesenberry, Feng and Ferrara. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Yeyi Zhu, Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org