Original Research ARTICLE
Menopausal status and physical activity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors of healthy middle-aged women: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.
- 1Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
- 2Medical School, University of Minnesota, United States
- 3Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
- 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pelvic Floor Research and Therapy Unit, Central Finland Central Hospital, Finland
- 5LIKES – Foundation for Sport and Health Sciences, Finland
- 6Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality in women in developed countries. CVD risk rises with age, yet for women there is a rapid increase in CVD risk that occurs after the onset of menopause. This observation suggests the presence of factors in the middle-aged women that accelerate the progression of CVD independent of chronological aging. Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is a well-established protective factor against CVD. However, its role in attenuating atherogenic lipid profile changes and CVD risk in postmenopausal women has not been well-established. The present study is part of the Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study, a population-based cohort study in which middle-aged Caucasian women (47-55) were classified into premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal groups based on follicle stimulating hormone levels and bleeding patterns. Comprehensive questionnaires, laboratory visits, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity monitoring by accelerometers were used to characterize the menopausal groups and serum lipid profiles were analyzed to quantify CV (cardiovascular) risk factors. Based on our findings, LTPA may attenuate menopause-associated atherogenic changes in the serum CV risk factors of healthy middle-aged women. However, LTPA does not seem to entirely offset the lipid profile changes associated with the menopausal transition.
Keywords: Menopause, cardiovascular disease, physical activity, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides, Leptin, Fasting blood glucose
Received: 27 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 12 Aug 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Karvinen, Jergenson, Hyvärinen, Aukee, Tammelin, Sipilä, Kovanen, Kujala and Laakkonen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Sira M. Karvinen, University of Jyväskylä, Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland, email@example.com