The potential role of trained immunity in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory disorders
- 1Medical Center, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands
During induction of trained immunity, monocytes and macrophages undergo a functional and transcriptional reprogramming towards increased activation. Important rewiring of cellular metabolism of the myeloid cells takes place during induction of trained immunity, including a shift towards glycolysis induced through the mTOR pathway, as well as glutaminolysis and cholesterol synthesis. Subsequently, this leads to modulation of the function of epigenetic enzymes, resulting in important changes in chromatin architecture that enables increased gene transcription. However, in addition to the beneficial effects of trained immunity as a host defense mechanism, we hypothesize that trained immunity also plays a deleterious role in the induction and/or maintenance of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases if inappropriately activated.
Keywords: trained immunity, epigenetics, Monocytes, Immunometabolism, Innate immune memory, Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, Behcets disease, Wegener’s granulomatosis, hyper Ig-D syndroom, chronic granulomatous disease, CAPS, traps, FMF, Sarcoidosis, mTOR
Received: 11 Dec 2017;
Accepted: 02 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Liwu Li, Virginia Tech, United States
Reviewed by:Min Wu, University of North Dakota, United States
Paola Italiani, Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche (CNR), Italy
Copyright: © 2018 Arts, Joosten and Netea. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Rob J. Arts, Medical Center, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Rob.JW.Arts@radboudumc.nl