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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00374

Modulation of gut microbiota: a novel paradigm of enhancing the efficacy of PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade therapy

 Yiming Wang1, Rena Ma1, Fang Liu1, Seul A. Lee1 and  Li Zhang1*
  • 1University of New South Wales, Australia

Abstract
Blockade of programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein and its ligand PD-L1 has been used as cancer immunotherapy in recent years, with the blockade of PD-1 being more widely used than blockade of PD-L1. PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade therapy showed benefits in patients with various types of cancer; however, such beneficial effects were seen only in a subgroup of patients. Improving the efficacy of PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade therapy is clearly needed. In this review, we summarize the recent studies on the effects of gut microbiota on PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade and discuss the new perspectives on improving the efficacy of PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade therapy in cancer treatment through modulating gut microbiota. We also discuss the possibility that chronic infections or inflammation may impact on PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade therapy.

Keywords: Gut Microbiota, PD-1, PD-L1, cancer immunotherapy, efficacy

Received: 27 Nov 2017; Accepted: 09 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Amedeo Amedei, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy

Reviewed by:

Haidong Dong, Mayo Clinic Minnesota, United States
Dr. Kawaljit Kaur, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
Sungjune Kim, Moffitt Cancer Center, United States  

Copyright: © 2018 Wang, Ma, Liu, Lee and Zhang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Li Zhang, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, l.zhang@unsw.edu.au