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Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00387

Systemic lupus Erythematosus: Definitions, Contexts, Conflicts, Enigmas

  • 1Department of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, Norway

SLE is an inadequately defined syndrome. Etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. SLE is on the other hand a seminal syndrome that has challenged immunologists, biologists, genetics and clinicians to solve its nature. The syndrome is characterized by multiple, etiologically unlinked manifestations. Unexpectedly they seem to occur in different stochastically linked clusters, although single gene defects may promote a smaller spectrum of symptoms/criteria typical for SLE. There is no known inner coherence of parameters (criteria) making up the disease. These parameters are, nevertheless, implemented in The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria to classify SLE. Still, SLE is an abstraction since the ACR or SLICC criteria allow us to define hundreds of different clinical SLE phenotypes. This is a major point of the present discussion and uses “The anti-dsDNA antibody” as an example related to the problematic search for biomarkers for SLE. The following discussion will show how problematic this is: The disease is defined through non-coherent classification criteria, its complexity is recognized and accepted, its pathogenesis is plural and poorly understood. Therapy is focused on dominant symptoms or organ manifestations, and not on the syndrome itself. From basic scientific evidences, we can add substantial amount of data that are not sufficiently considered in clinical medicine, which may change the paradigms linked to what “The Anti-DNA antibody” is - and is not - in context of the imperfectly defined syndrome SLE.

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome, Anti-dsDNA antibodies, criteria, definitions, enigma.

Received: 22 Dec 2017; Accepted: 12 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

George C. Tsokos, Harvard Medical School, United States

Reviewed by:

Claudio Lunardi, University of Verona, Italy
Alessia Alunno, University of Perugia, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Rekvig. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Ole P. Rekvig, University of Tromsø, Department of Medical Biology, Tromsø, Norway,