Chromatin accessibility and interactions in the transcriptional regulation of T cells
- 1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and the Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), United States
During T cell differentiation and activation, specific stimuli and a network of transcription factors are involved in orchestrating chromatin accessibility, establishing enhancer-promoter interactions, and regulating gene expression. Over the past few years, there have been new insights into how chromatin interactions coordinate differentiation during T cell development and how regulatory elements are programmed to allow T cells to differentially respond to distinct stimuli. In this review, we discuss recent advances related to the roles of transcription factors in establishing the regulatory chromatin landscapes that orchestrate T cell development and differentiation. In particular, we focus on the role of transcription factors (e.g., TCF-1, BCL11B, PU.1, STAT3, STAT5, AP-1, and IRF4) in mediating chromatin accessibility and interactions and in regulating gene expression in T cells, including gene expression that is dependent on IL-2 and IL-21. Furthermore, we discuss the state of knowledge on enhancer-promoter interactions and how autoimmune disease risk variants can be linked to molecular functions of putative target genes.
Keywords: Transcription Factors, chromatin accessibility, T cells, Stat5, ChIA-PET, chromatin interactions
Received: 10 Sep 2018;
Accepted: 06 Nov 2018.
Edited by:Keiko Ozato, National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States
Reviewed by:Tom Taghon, Ghent University, Belgium
Cosima T. Baldari, Università degli Studi di Siena, Italy
Copyright: © 2018 Li and Leonard. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Peng Li, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and the Immunology Center, Bethesda, MD 20892, Maryland, United States, email@example.com
Dr. Warren J. Leonard, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and the Immunology Center, Bethesda, MD 20892, Maryland, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org