Cancer stem cells and immunosuppressive microenvironment in glioma
- 1Department of Neurosurgery in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China
- 2Houston Methodist Research Institute, United States
Glioma is one of the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system and is characterized by extensive infiltrative growth, neovascularization, and resistance to various combined therapies. In addition to heterogenous population of tumor cells, the glioma stem cells (GSCs) and other nontumor cells present in the glioma microenvironment serve as critical regulators of tumor progression and recurrence. In this review, we discuss the role of several resident or peripheral factors with distinct tumor-promoting features and their dynamic interactions in the development of glioma. Localized antitumor factors could be silenced or even converted to suppressive phenotypes, due to stemness-related cell reprograming and immunosuppressive mediators in glioma-derived microenvironment. Therefore, we also summarize the latest knowledge on GSCs and key microenvironment components, and discuss the emerging immunotherapeutic strategies to cure this disease.
Keywords: Glioma, Cancer Stem Cell (CSC), Tumor Microenvironment, Immunosuppression (IS), Immunotherapy
Received: 11 Sep 2018;
Accepted: 28 Nov 2018.
Edited by:James F. Curtin, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland
Reviewed by:Carlos Alfaro, NavarraBiomed, Spain
Rodabe N. Amaria, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Ma, Wang, Long, Xing, Chu, Luo, Wang and Liu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Rongfu Wang, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, United States, email@example.com