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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00647


  • 1CONICET Institute of Immunological and Pathophysiological Studies (IIFP), Argentina
  • 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina

The mucosal immune system constitutes a physical and dynamic barrier against foreign antigens and pathogens and exerts control mechanisms to maintain intestinal tolerance to the microbiota and food antigens. Chronic alterations of the intestinal homeostasis predispose to inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). There is growing evidence that the frequency and severity of these diseases are increasing worldwide, which may be probably due to changes in environmental factors.
Several stromal and immune cells are involved in this delicate equilibrium that dictates homeostasis. In this review we aimed to summarize the role of epithelial cells and fibroblasts in the induction of mucosal inflammation in the context of IBD. It has been extensively described that in these processes environmental factors are key players in this process, and the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract is currently being intensively investigated due to its profound impact the immune response. Recent findings have demonstrated the interplay between dietary and environmental components, the gut microbiome, and immune cells. “Western” dietary patterns, such as high caloric diets, and pollution can induce alterations in the gut microbiome that in turn affect the intestinal and systemic homeostasis. Here we summarize current knowledge on the influence of dietary components and air particulate matters on gut microbiome composition, and the impact on stromal and immune cells, with a particular focus on promoting local inflammation.

Keywords: Gut Inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal epithelial cells, intestinal fibroblasts, immune cell activation/modulation, intestinal microbiota

Received: 14 Sep 2018; Accepted: 11 Mar 2019.

Edited by:

Marcela A. Hermoso, Universidad de Chile, Chile

Reviewed by:

Rita Carsetti, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital (IRCCS), Italy
Markus Bosmann, Boston University, United States  

Copyright: © 2019 Curciarello, Canziani, Docena and Muglia. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Cecilia I. Muglia, CONICET Institute of Immunological and Pathophysiological Studies (IIFP), La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina,