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Front. Immunol. | doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02663

Therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles for immunomodulation

  • 1Kazan Federal University, Russia
  • 2University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

Immunosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stem cells has been extensively investigated in many studies in vivo and in vitro. In recent years, a variety preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate immune-mediated disorders, including autoimmune diseases. However to date mesenchymal stem cells have not become a widely used therapeutic agent due to safety challenges, high cost and difficulties providing long term of production. A key mechanism underpinning the immunomodulatory effect of MSCs is the production of paracrine factors including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs). MSCs derived EVs have become an attractive therapeutic agent for immunomodulation and treatment of immune-mediated disorders. In addition to many preclinical studies of MSCs derived EVs, their beneficial effects have been observed in patients with both acute graft-versus-host disease and chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss the current findings in the field of MSCs derived EVs-based therapies in immune-mediated disorders and approaches to scale EV production for clinical use.

Keywords: extracellular vesicles, Microvesicles, Immunosuppression, Autoimmune Diseases, Multiple Sclerosis, transplant rejection, type 1 diabetes, graft-versus-host disease

Received: 07 May 2019; Accepted: 28 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Gomzikova, James and Rizvanov. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Marina Gomzikova, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia, marina.gomzikova.gmo@gmail.com