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Front. Mar. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00722

Multidisciplinary Observing in the World Ocean’s Oxygen Minimum Zone regions: from climate to fish- the VOICE initiative

 Veronique C. GARCON1*,  Johannes KARSTENSEN2*,  Artur PALACZ3,  Maciej Telszewski3, Tony APARCO LARA4, Denise BREITBURG5,  Francisco CHAVEZ6,  Paulo COELHO7, Marcela CORNEJO8,  Carmen DOS SANTOS9,  Bjoern FIEDLER2, Natalya GALLO10, 11,  Marilaure GREGOIRE12, Dimitri GUTIERREZ13, 14,  Jose M. HERNANDEZ-AYON15,  Kirsten ISENSEE16,  Tony KOSLOW10,  Lisa A. LEVIN10, 11,  Francis MARSAC17,  Helmut MASKE18, Baye C. MBAYE19,  Ivonne MONTES20,  Syed Wajih A. NAQVI21,  Jay S. Pearlman22,  Edwin PINTO23,  Grant C. PITCHER24, 25, Oscar PIZARRO26, 27,  Kenneth ROSE28, Damodar SHENOY29,  Anja K. VAN DER PLAS30, Melo R. VITO31 and  Kevin WENG32
  • 1UMR5566 Laboratoire d'études en géophysique et océanographie spatiales (LEGOS), France
  • 2Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics, GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany
  • 3International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Poland
  • 4National University of San Marcos, Peru
  • 5Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SI), United States
  • 6Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), United States
  • 7Instituto de Investigação de Pescas e Mar, Angola
  • 8Departamento de Oceanografía, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
  • 9Faculty of Sciences, Agostinho Neto University, Angola
  • 10Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, United States
  • 11Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, United States
  • 12Department of Astrophysics, Geophysics and Oceanography, Faculty of Sciences, University of Liege, Belgium
  • 13Institute of the Sea of ​​Peru (IMARPE), Peru
  • 14Programa de Maestría en Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru
  • 15Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexico
  • 16Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO), France
  • 17UMR9190 Centre pour la biodiversité marine, l'exploitation et la conservation (MARBEC), France
  • 18Departamento de Oceanografía Biológica, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Mexico
  • 19Laboratory of Physics of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal
  • 20Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Peru
  • 21Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India
  • 22Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (France), France
  • 23Instituto Oceanografico de la Armada del Ecuador (INOCAR), Ecuador
  • 24Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (South Africa), South Africa
  • 25Department Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa
  • 26Departamento de Geofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
  • 27Millennium Institute of Oceanography, University of Concepción, Chile
  • 28Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (UMCES), United States
  • 29National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), India
  • 30Ministy of Fisheries and Marine Resources (Namibia), Namibia
  • 31National Fisheries Development Institute, Cape Verde
  • 32Department of Fisheries Science, William & Mary's Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, United States

Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socio-economic needs, and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygenated waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs). The VOICE (Variability of the Oxycline and its ImpaCt on the Ecosystem) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of physical, biogeochemical and biological components of regional ocean observing. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, VOICE creates a roadmap towards observation-model syntheses for a comprehensive understanding of selected oxycline dependent objectives. Local to global effects, such as habitat compression or deoxygenation trends, prompt for comprehensive observing of the oxycline on various space and time scales, and for an increased awareness of its impact on ecosystem services. Building on the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), we initiated readiness level (RL) assessments for ocean observing of the oxycline in highly productive and economically important OMZ waters. VOICE determines ocean observing design based on scientific and monitoring activities in selected OMZs, namely the California Current System (US West Coast, the Southern California Current system off Mexico), the Equatorial Eastern Pacific off Ecuador, the Peru-Chile Current system, West Africa off Senegal and Cape Verde Islands, the northern Benguela off Namibia and in the Northern Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea). Regional champions aided in assessing FOO design elements for the respective OMZ, namely: requirements processes, coordination of observational elements, and data management and information products. The RL for FOO elements is derived for each region and points at system bottlenecks which prevent delivering information and products for end users with a goal of motivating consistency across regions. We found that fisheries and ecosystem management are a societal requirement for all regions, but maturity levels of observational elements and data management and information products differ. Identification of relevant stakeholders, developing strategies for RL improvements, and building and sustaining infrastructure capacity to implement these strategies are fundamental milestones for VOICE initiative over the next 2-5 years and beyond.

Keywords: Oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), oxycline, ocean observing system, multidisciplinary, Readiness level, ecosystem

Received: 15 Nov 2018; Accepted: 07 Nov 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 GARCON, KARSTENSEN, PALACZ, Telszewski, APARCO LARA, BREITBURG, CHAVEZ, COELHO, CORNEJO, DOS SANTOS, FIEDLER, GALLO, GREGOIRE, GUTIERREZ, HERNANDEZ-AYON, ISENSEE, KOSLOW, LEVIN, MARSAC, MASKE, MBAYE, MONTES, NAQVI, Pearlman, PINTO, PITCHER, PIZARRO, ROSE, SHENOY, VAN DER PLAS, VITO and WENG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Veronique C. GARCON, UMR5566 Laboratoire d'études en géophysique et océanographie spatiales (LEGOS), Toulouse, France,
Dr. Johannes KARSTENSEN, Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics, GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, 24105, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany,