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Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Changing World

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Front. Microbiol. | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00244

Contrasting the genetic patterns of microbial communities in soda lakes with and without cyanobacterial bloom

  • 1Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES), University of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 3Geoscience Environnement Toulouse, Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), France
  • 4Faculty of Engineering, Architecture, Urbanism and Geography, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South-America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

Keywords: Arsenic, alkaline lakes, Metagenomic, Nitrogen, saline lakes, Sulfur

Received: 10 Oct 2017; Accepted: 31 Jan 2018.

Edited by:

Ana B. Pacheco, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Reviewed by:

Christian Edwardson, Shedd Aquarium, United States
Tamas Felfoldi, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary  

Copyright: © 2018 Andreote, Dini-Andreote, Rigonato, Silva, Souza, Barbiero, Rezende-Filho and Fiore. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Marli F. Fiore, University of São Paulo, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Avenida Centenario 303, São Paulo, 13416-000, São Paulo, Brazil,