Streptomyces as a prominent resource of future anti-MRSA drugs
- 1Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery (NBDD) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia
- 2Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia
- 3Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia
- 4Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Malaysia
- 5Vice Chancellor Office, Jiangsu University, China
- 6Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic Safety (Cohorts), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Thailand
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pose a significant health threat as they tend to cause severe infections in vulnerable populations and are difficult to treat due to a limited range of effective antibiotics and also their ability to form biofilm. These organisms were once limited to hospital acquired infections but are now widely present in the community and even in animals. Furthermore, these organisms are constantly evolving to develop resistance to more antibiotics. This results in a need for new clinically useful antibiotics and one potential source are the Streptomyces which have already been the source of several anti-MRSA drugs including Vancomycin. There remain large numbers of Streptomyces potentially undiscovered in underexplored regions such as mangrove, deserts, marine and freshwater environments as well as endophytes. Organisms from these regions also face significant challenges to survival which often result in novel bioactive compounds several of which have already shown promise in drug development. We review the various mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in MRSA and all the known compounds isolated from Streptomyces with anti-MRSA activity with a focus on those from underexplored regions. As isolating the full array of compounds Streptomyces are potentially capable of producing in the laboratory has proven to be a challenge and we also review techniques that have been used to overcome this including genetic cluster analysis. Additionally, we review the in vivo work done thus far with promising compounds of Streptomyces origin as well as the animal models that could be used for this work.
Keywords: Streptomyces, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotics, Anti-MRSA, actinobatceria
Received: 22 Mar 2018;
Accepted: 30 Aug 2018.
Edited by:Miklos Fuzi, Semmelweis University, Hungary
Reviewed by:Anja Schüffler, Institut für Biotechnologie und Wirkstoff-Forschung (IBWF), Germany
Dipesh Dhakal, Sun Moon University, South Korea
Copyright: © 2018 Kemung, Teng Hern, Khan, Chan FASc, Pusparajah, Goh and Lee. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Priyia Pusparajah, Monash University Malaysia, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia, email@example.com
Dr. Bey Hing Goh, Monash University Malaysia, Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery (NBDD) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 47500, Selangor, Malaysia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Learn-Han Lee, Monash University Malaysia, Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery (NBDD) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 47500, Selangor, Malaysia, email@example.com