Original Research ARTICLE
Germination and Growth Analysis of Streptomyces lividans at the Single-Cell Level Under Varying Medium Compositions
- 1Forschungszentrum Jülich, Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HZ), Germany
- 2Bielefeld University, Germany
Quantitative single-cell cultivation has provided fundamental contributions to our understanding of heterogeneity among industrially used microorganisms. Filamentously growing Streptomyces species are emerging platform organisms for industrial production processes, but their exploitation is still limited due to often reported high batch-to-batch variations and unexpected growth and production differences. Population heterogeneity is suspected to be one responsible factor, which is so far not systematically investigated at the single-cell level. Novel microfluidic single-cell cultivation devices offer promising solutions to investigate these phenomena. In this study, we investigated the germination and growth behavior of Streptomyces lividans TK24 under varying medium compositions on different complexity levels (i.e., mycelial growth, hyphal growth and tip elongation) on single-cell level. Our analysis reveals a remarkable stability within growth and germination of spores and early mycelium development when exposed to constant and defined environments. We show that spores undergo long metabolic adaptation processes of up to >30 h to adjust to new medium conditions, rather than using a “persister” strategy as a possibility to cope with rapidly changing environments. Due to this uniform behavior, we conclude that Steptomyces livdans can be cultivated quite robustly under constant environmental conditions as provided by microfluidic cultivation approaches. Failure and non-reproducible cultivations are thus most likely to be found in less controllable larger-scale cultivation workflows and as a result of environmental gradients within large-scale cultivations.
Keywords: Streptomyces lividans, Filamentous growth, Microfluidics (experiment), single-cell cultivation, Germination, tip elongation rate, heterogeneity
Received: 09 Aug 2018;
Accepted: 19 Oct 2018.
Edited by:Dirk Tischler, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany
Reviewed by:Susan Schlimpert, John Innes Centre (JIC), United Kingdom
Josef Trögl, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Czechia
Copyright: © 2018 Koepff, Sachs, Wiechert, Kohlheyer, Nöh, Oldiges and Grünberger. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Alexander Grünberger, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org