Molecular Signatures of Biomarkers with a Special Reference to Stress and Related Diseases / Disorders: Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Values - Current Progress and Futuristic Vision
- 1Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), India
- 2Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran
- 3Barkatullah University, India
- 4Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, India
- 5U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University, India
- 6Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, India
- 7College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Tripura University, India
- 8Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (ITESM), Mexico
- 9Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand
Various internal and external factors negatively affect the homeostatic equilibrium of organisms at the molecular to the whole-body level, inducing the so-called state of ‘stress’. Stress affects an organism’s welfare status and induces energy-consuming mechanisms to combat the subsequent ill effects; thus, the individual may be immunocompromised, making them vulnerable to pathogens. The information presented here has been extensively reviewed, compiled and analyzed from authenticated published resources available on Medline, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Science Direct, and other scientific databases. Stress levels can be monitored by the quantitative and qualitative measurement of biomarkers. Prominent markers of stress include thermal stress markers like heat shock proteins (HSPs), innate immune markers like Acute Phase Proteins (APPs), oxidative stress markers, and chemical secretions in the saliva and urine. In addition, stress biomarkers are thought to play critical roles in the prognosis of stress-related diseases and disorders, and in therapy guidance. Moreover, different components have been identified as potent mediators of cardiovascular, central nervous system, hepatic, and nephrological disorders, which can also be employed to evaluate these conditions precisely, but with stringent validation and specificity. Considerable scientific advances have been made in the detection, quantitation, and application of these biomarkers. The present review describes the current progress of identifying biomarkers, their prognostic and therapeutic values.
Keywords: biomarkers, stress, diagnosis, prognosis, Therapeutic values, acute phase proteins, Heat shock proteins, miRNAs, Oxidative Stress
Received: 11 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 11 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Dhama, LATHEEF, Dadar, Samad, Munjal, Khandia, Karthik, Tiwari, Yatoo, Chakraborty, Iqbal and Chaicumpa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Kuldeep Dhama, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Bareilly, India, email@example.com
Prof. Ashok Munjal, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, firstname.lastname@example.org