Regulation Of Cell Signaling By Dynamic Protein S-Acylation
- 1Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, United States
Protein S-acylation is the reversible addition of fatty acids to the cysteine residues of target proteins. It regulates multiple aspects of protein function, including the localization to membranes, intracellular trafficking, protein interactions, protein stability, and protein conformation. This process is regulated by palmitoyl acyltransferases that have the conserved amino acid sequence DHHC at their active site. Although they have conserved catalytic cores, DHHC enzymes vary in their protein substrate selection, lipid substrate preference, and regulatory mechanisms. Alterations in DHHC enzyme function are associated with many human diseases, including cancers and neurological conditions. The removal of fatty acids from acylated cysteine residues is catalyzed by acyl protein thioesterases. Notably, S-acylation is now known to be a highly dynamic process, and plays crucial roles in signaling transduction in various cell types. In this review, we will explore the recent findings on protein S-acylation, the enzymatic regulation of this process, and discuss examples of dynamic S-acylation.
Keywords: S-Acylation, DHHC enzymes, aPT, ABHD, Cell signaling
Received: 20 Jan 2021;
Accepted: 16 Feb 2021.
Copyright: © 2021 Chen, Fan and Boehning. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Jessica J. Chen, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, United States, email@example.com