Specialty Grand Challenge ARTICLE
Biomedical nanotechnology related grand challenges and perspectives
- 1Florida Polytechnic University, United States
Biomedical nanotechnology is dedicated to exploring nanoscience and nanotechnology for health wellness with the ultimate toward personalized health management, as shown in Fig. 1. Fact reports released by health agencies have confirmed the significant role of technologies in diseases monitoring, treatment, and progression management. This is also evident that the introduction of nanotechnology assisted approaches makes diagnostics and treatment of a targeted disease more sensitive, affordable and accessible (Kaushik 2017, Springer USA; Kaushik and Dixit 2016; Kaushik and Mujawar 2018, Sensors-MDPI). The tunable performance of nano-system investigated for biomedical research is advantageous to design and develop a therapy according to patient profiles i.e., personalized health management (Nair et al., 2016; Kaushik et al., 2018, Nanomedicine; Kaushik et al., 2018, Drug Discovery Today). Besides salient features of nano-assisted approaches, the introduction of numerical approaches i.e., artificial intelligence (AI) (Yu et al., 2018; Zhu and Wang 2018), involve deep & machine learning, and bioinformatics (Chou et al., 2004; Greene et al., 2014) are emerging as a very useful tool to understand prediction and trends. Such information is useful to understand the epidemic variations, therapy optimization, and risk assessment. At the same time, a suitable management of bioinformatics is very crucial to optimize an analysis timely and effectively (Altman and Michael 2018; Lesk 2019). Presently, significant efforts are being made to promote the internet of medical things (IoMT) approach in biomedical nanotechnology for data sharing, storage, and analysis (Rodrigues et al., 2018; Yuehong et al., 2016; Chiuchisan et al., 2015). The IoMT outcomes are useful for making transition of biomedical technology from the laboratory to the field. Keeping these outcomes in view, efforts are being made to transform electronics health to intelligent health (Eysenbach et al., 2001; Berrouiguet et al., 2018).
Figure 1. Illustration of Biomedical Nanotechnology for personalized health care management.
The significant contribution of state-of-art biomedical nanotechnologies along with challenges are summarized as follows,
a) The foundation of biomedical nanotechnology is always a nano-scaled platform which exhibits tunable features such as surface functionalization (for immobilizing and binding of bio-actives), stimuli-responsive properties (controlled multi-functional outcomes within a single nanostructure, a need to combinational approach), easy to fabricate (especially thin films needed for sensor fabrication), and tunable properties (especially morphological, optical, electrical, magnetic, molecular). However, developing a nano-system which exhibit properties according to targeted application in mind is always challenging (Fig. 1) (Kaushik and Dixit 2016).
b) Detection of targeted biomarkers at pM level which is very useful for early-stage diagnostics and therapy efficacy assessment. However significant efforts are suggested to develop a miniaturized sensing system integrated with a smartphone to perfume detection for point-of-care (POC) applications i.e., infection diseases (Fig. 1) (Kaushik and Mujawar, 2018).
c) Accurate and precise detection of a biomarker is always a primary need to design and develop an analytical device. This raises the demand for developing smart arrays (interdigitated electrode system), multiple detection, highly sensitive transducers, and microfluidic systems. A perfect combination above mention component will certainly be a sensing system to detect a biomarker selectively and timely, at a very low level at POC (Fig. 1). (Kaushik and Dixit 2016; Dixit and Kaushik 2016, Kaushik et al., 2016, Biosensor & Bioelectronics 80, 273-287, Kaushik et al., 2016 Biosensors and Bioelectronics75, 254-272; Kaushik et al., 2017, Trends in Biotechnology 35(4), 308-317; Kaushik et al., 2016, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 86, 426-431; Kaushik et al., 2018, Scientific Reports 8(1), 9700; Tiwari et al., 2019).
d) Functional biomaterials for tissue engineering mainly tissue regeneration and regenerative medicine. This area of research explores new bio-mimic biomaterials construct to minimize the effect of tissue injury and artificial organs. However, exploring the fundamental understanding of biomaterial-organ interaction behavior and strategies of scaling up of these biomaterials along with federal approval for clinical application is the suggested future approach (Sharma et al., 2019, Vashist et al., 2016, Vashist et al., 2018, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 7(9) 1701213).
e) Nanotechnology assisted drug delivery systems have demonstrated site-specific delivery and release of a drug to manage targeted diseases. Presently, this area of biomedical nanotechnology is covered widely, and outcomes are very of high value. However, so far developed systems multi component-based nano-assisted therapeutics which may have side-effects in longer terms. Experts have suggested the development of least-component based nano-pharmacology wherein selected drug nano-carriers should be bio-compatible and stimuli-responsive. Such materials can perform controlled drug delivery and release, even in the brain (Fig. 1) (Nair et al., 2016; Kaushik et al., 2019, Scientific Reports 9(1), p.3928; Kaushik et al., 2016, Scientific Reports 6, p.25309; Rodriguez et al.,2017; Vashist et al., 2018, Drug Discovery Today 23(7), 1436-1443).
f) Nanotechnology assisted combinational therapy is emerging as one of the best alternatives of conventional approaches. In approach optimizes a perfect combination of various therapeutic agents, therapeutics fabrication processes, and stimulations to achieve treatment of multiple symptoms, at one time. However, exploring the effects of various stimulations, exposures, drug-to-drug interaction, and drug/stimulation-human interaction at the acute & chromic timeline (Fig. 1). (Kaushik et al., 2017, Scientific Reports, 7, 45663; Jayant et al., 2018; Tomitaka et al., 2017; Tomitaka et al., 2019)
g) Designing and development of a new therapy is an issue of well-planned experimentation. Managing a lot of data, optimization of a perfect drug to make a therapy, associated risk assessment, and possible prediction along with the trends is always a major concern. To manage data related to every aspect, the new algorithm is emerging which analyzes every aspect and gives an idea of a better approach with no or least risk assessment. Keeping this in view, bioinformatics, AI, and IoMT are emerging significantly to assist the development of novel biomedical nanotechnology (Fig. 1). (Yu et al., 2018; Zhu and Wang 2018; Altman and Michael 2018; Lesk 2019; Rodrigues et al., 2018; Yuehong et al., 2016; Chiuchisan et al., 2015; Chou et al., 2004; Greene et al., 2014)
h) Health agencies like world health organization (WHO), national institutes of health (NIH), etc., have announced biomedical technologies development as a special focus to have efficient approaches to managing and targeted diseases. They have initiated various programs, alone and in collaboration with industries, to promote fundamental and applied aspects of biomedical nanotechnologies. These initiatives aim to develop translational research to introduce new therapies at clinical. However, poor regularities and time taking approval sometimes limit the promotion of developed biomedical nanotechnology for the patient. Significant efforts are being made to involve a multi-sector, mainly public-private partnership, to promote research for clinical translational point of view (Fig. 1). (Kaushik 2018, Drug Discovery Today 2018).
i) Special insist on WHO, NIH, etc., kind of health agencies is also to aware people about the significance of biomedical nanotechnology. For example, gene therapy has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach, but some people are not comfortable to adopt it as a therapy. Therefore, awareness is also really very important as like conducting cutting edge research (Fig. 1). (Kaushik 2018, Drug Discovery Today 2018).
BIOMEDICAL NANOTECHNOLOGY, A GREAT INITIATIVE OF FRONTIERS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
As discussed above, biomedical nanotechnology is needed for a better tomorrow. Therefore, highlighting the need for promotion and related critical aspects biomedical nanotechnology is very important for education and training. Keeping this in view, the mission of the "Biomedical Nanotechnology" section featured in the "Frontiers in Nanotechnology" journal will be to explore fundamentals as well as applied research to investigate novel nano-enabled therapeutics and diagnostics approach to developing effective and affordable therapies and diagnostics. The outcomes of these approaches, alone or in combination, will certainly be useful disease management aiming to improve personalized health needs. Based on the objectives, this section will cover all the aspects of fundamental and advanced research related to the following areas:
• Nanoscale for biomedical applications
• Miniaturized systems for health care
• Nano-enabled sensing systems
• Simulation and theoretical aspects of developing sensors
• Point-of-care systems for personalized health care
• Microfluidic for biologist
• Image-guided therapy
• Personalized nanomedicine
• Nano-enabled tissues and gene engineering
• Nanotechnology for drug delivery systems
• Nanobiotechnology for drug addiction
• Translational and clinical research
• Theoretical aspects of diseases managements
• Bioinformatics for diseases management
• Artificial Intelligence for biomedical application
• Internet of medical things (IoMT)
• Numerical aspects of nanotechnology for health care
• Ethical and regulatory issues in theranostics
A panel of experts along with the best assistance of publication home is fully dedicated to publishing high-quality original research papers. In addition to high-quality original research papers, this journal will also publish technical notes, opinion, research highlights, brief communications, letters, book reviews, comprehensive reviews, and important announcements. This journal will pay special attention to published book series related to all the fields of nano-enabling advancements biomedical science.
This section will be a unique platform to understand aspects of smart nanomaterials, nano-devices for biomedical application, rapid diagnostics, and effective therapeutics developed using nanoscience & nanotechnology. The possibilities numerical simulation, theoretical aspects, regulatory issues, and ethical knowledge to manage clinical and translational research of a targeted disease will be covered here. To support the aims of Frontiers, overall this journal will serve as a guide to researchers to strategy future research toward developing nano-enabled smart and effective diagnostics and therapies for health wellness.
Despite the significant contribution of biomedical nanotechnology in health care management, significant efforts are being made to overcome the challenges of poor reproducibility, specificity & efficacy, affordability, and avoided regulatory landscape associated with state-of-art biomedical nanotechnology. Keeping advancements and prospects in mind, experts suggested increasing efforts to make a new system that meets the patient's requirements. Health agencies are seeking developments that can make health accessible, affordable, and manageable. This could be managed by putting efforts in design and develop smart and effective nano-enabled components which can make a diagnostics and therapy on the desired performance. This Journal explores the demand, significance, challenges, and prospects of biomedical nanotechnology for personalized health wellness. We also request experts to try their level best to solve and explore problems via conducting cutting edge research in the field of biomedical nanotechnology. To support the research of industries, institutions, and universities, the supporting and motivating policies of federal agencies are also very important. Overall, balance research supported by the public-private partnership is suggested to develop and promote biomedical nanotechnology for health care management in a personalized manner.
I do acknowledge Frontiers publication home for providing opportunity. The facilities and resources of the Department of Natural Sciences, Division of Sciences, Art, & Mathematics, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL-33805, USA are also acknowledged in this report.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Author declare no conflict of interest.
AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS: Ajeet Kaushik articulated this report solely.
Altman, Russ B., and Michael Levitt. "What is Biomedical Data Science and Do We Need an Annual Review of It? (2018), Annual Review of Biomedical data Science." i-iii.
Berrouiguet, S., Perez-Rodriguez, M.M., Larsen, M., Baca-García, E., Courtet, P. and Oquendo, M., 2018. From eHealth to iHealth: transition to participatory and personalized medicine in mental health. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20, e2.
Chiuchisan, I., Chiuchisan, I. and Dimian, M. (2015 October). Internet of Things for e-Health: An approach to medical applications. In 2015 International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding (IWCIM), 105. IEEE. 10.1109/IWCIM.2015.7347091
Chou, K.C., (2004). Structural bioinformatics and its impact to biomedical science. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11(16), 2105-2134.
Dixit, C.K., Kaushik, A.K. and Kaushik, A., 2016. Microfluidics for biologists. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Eysenbach, Gunther. "What is e-health?" (2001). Journal of Medical Internet Research 3, e20.
Greene, C.S., Tan, J., Ung, M., Moore, J.H. and Cheng, C. (2014). Big data bioinformatics. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 229, 1896-1900.
Jayant, R.D., Tiwari, S., Atluri, V., Kaushik, A., Tomitaka, A., Yndart, A., Colon-Perez, L., Febo, M. and Nair, M. (2018). Multifunctional Nanotherapeutics for the Treatment of neuroAIDS in Drug Abusers. Scientific reports, 8, 12991.
Kaushik, A., and Dixit, C. K. (Eds.). (2016). Nanobiotechnology for sensing applications: from lab to field. CRC Press.
Kaushik, A., and Mujawar, M. (2018). Point of Care Sensing Devices: Better Care for Everyone, 18, 4303.
Kaushik, A., Jayant, R. D., and Nair, M. (2018). Nanomedicine for neuroHIV/AIDS management, 13, 669-673.
Kaushik, A., Jayant, R. D., & Nair, M. (Eds.). (2017). Advances in Personalized Nanotherapeutics. NY, USA: Springer.
Kaushik, A., Jayant, R. D., Bhardwaj, V., and Nair, M. (2018). Personalized nanomedicine for CNS diseases. Drug Discovery Today, 23, 1007-1015.
Kaushik, A., Jayant, R. D., Tiwari, S., Vashist, A., and Nair, M. (2016). Nano-biosensors to detect beta-amyloid for Alzheimer's disease management. Biosensors and bioelectronics, 80, 273-287.
Kaushik, A., Jayant, R.D., Nikkhah-Moshaie, R., Bhardwaj, V., Roy, U., Huang, Z., Ruiz, A., Yndart, A., Atluri, V., El-Hage, N. Khalili, K., and Nair, M. (2016). Magnetically guided central nervous system delivery and toxicity evaluation of magneto-electric nanocarriers. Scientific Reports, 6, 25309.
Kaushik, A., Nikkhah-Moshaie, R., Sinha, R., Bhardwaj, V., Atluri, V., Jayant, R.D., Yndart, A., Kateb, B., Pala, N. and Nair, M. (2017). Investigation of ac-magnetic field stimulated nanoelectroporation of magneto-electric nano-drug-carrier inside CNS cells. Scientific Reports, 7, 45663.
Kaushik, A., Tiwari, S., Jayant, R. D., Marty, A., and Nair, M. (2016). Towards detection and diagnosis of Ebola virus disease at point-of-care. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 75, 254-272.
Kaushik, A., Tiwari, S., Jayant, R. D., Vashist, A., Nikkhah-Moshaie, R., El-Hage, N., and Nair, M. (2017). Electrochemical biosensors for early stage Zika diagnostics. Trends in biotechnology, 35, 308-317.
Kaushik, A., Vabbina, P.K., Atluri, V., Shah, P., Vashist, A., Jayant, R.D., Yandart, A. and Nair, M. (2016). Electrochemical monitoring-on-chip (E-MoC) of HIV-infection in presence of cocaine and therapeutics. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 86, 426-431.
Kaushik, A., Yndart, A., Atluri, V., Tiwari, S., Tomitaka, A., Gupta, P., Jayant, R.D., Alvarez-Carbonell, D., Khalili, K. and Nair, M. (2019). Magnetically guided non-invasive CRISPR-Cas9/gRNA delivery across blood-brain barrier to eradicate latent HIV-1 infection. Scientific reports, 9, 3928.
Kaushik, A., Yndart, A., Kumar, S., Jayant, R. D., Vashist, A., Brown, A. N., Li. C.Z., & Nair, M. (2018). A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for label-free detection of Zika-virus protein. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 9700.
Lesk, A. (2019). Introduction to bioinformatics. Oxford University Press.
Nair, M., Jayant, R. D., Kaushik, A., and Sagar, V. (2016). Getting into the brain: potential of nanotechnology in the management of NeuroAIDS. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 103, 202-217.
Rodrigues, J.J., Segundo, D.B.D.R., Junqueira, H.A., Sabino, M.H., Prince, R.M., Al-Muhtadi, J. and De Albuquerque, V.H.C., (2018). Enabling technologies for the internet of health things. IEEE Access, 6, 13129-13141.
Rodriguez, M., Lapierre, J., Ojha, C.R., Kaushik, A., Batrakova, E., Kashanchi, F., Dever, S.M., Nair, M. and El-Hage, and Nair M. (2017). Intranasal drug delivery of small interfering RNA targeting Beclin1 encapsulated with polyethylenimine (PEI) in mouse brain to achieve HIV attenuation. Scientific Reports, 7, 1862.
Sharma, K., Mujawar, M. A., and Kaushik, A. (2019). State-of Art functional biomaterials for tissue engineering. Frontiers in Materials, 6, 172.
Tiwari, S., Sharma, V., Mujawar, M., Mishra, Y. K., Kaushik, A., and Ghosal, A. (2019). Biosensors for Epilepsy Management: State-of-Art and Future Aspects. Sensors, 19, 1525.
Tomitaka, A., Arami, H., Raymond, A., Yndart, A., Kaushik, A., Jayant, R.D., Takemura, Y., Cai, Y., Toborek, M. and Nair, M. (2017). Development of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for multimodal image-guided therapy to the brain. Nanoscale, 9, 764-773.
Tomitaka, A., Kaushik, A., Kevadiya, B., Mukadam, I., Gendelman, H.E., Khalili, K., Liu, G. and Nair, M., 2019. Surface-engineered multimodal magnetic nanoparticles to manage CNS diseases. Drug Discovery Today. 24, 873-882.
Vashist, A., Kaushik, A., Vashist, A., Bala, J., Nikkhah-Moshaie, R., Sagar, V., and Nair, M. (2018). Nanogels as potential drug nanocarriers for CNS drug delivery. Drug Discovery Today, 23(7), 1436-1443.
Vashist, A., Kaushik, A., Vashist, A., Jayant, R.D., Tomitaka, A., Ahmad, S., Gupta, Y.K. and Nair, M. (2016). Recent trends on hydrogel based drug delivery systems for infectious diseases. Biomaterials Science, 4, 1535-1553.
Vashist, A., Kaushik, A., Vashist, A., Sagar, V., Ghosal, A., Gupta, Y.K., Ahmad, S. and Nair, M. (2018). Advances in carbon nanotubes–hydrogel hybrids in nanomedicine for therapeutics. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 7(9), p.1701213.
Yu, K.H., Beam, A.L. and Kohane, I.S. (2018). Artificial intelligence in healthcare. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 2, 719.
Yuehong, Y.I.N., Zeng, Y., Chen, X. and Fan, Y. (2016). The internet of things in healthcare: An overview. Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 1, 3-13.
Zhu, L., & Zheng, W.J. (2018). Informatics, data science, and artificial intelligence. JAMA, 320, 1103-1104.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Smart Diagnostics, Nanomedicine, Nano-sensors, drug delivery nano-systems, nano- theranostics, Advanced therapies
Received: 14 Oct 2019;
Accepted: 08 Nov 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Kaushik. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Ajeet Kaushik, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org