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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Psychiatry | doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00306

Cigarette smoking is significantly linked to sexual dissatisfaction in Chinese heroin-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment

 Baoliang Zhong1*, Yan-Min Xu1, Wu-Xiang Xie2 and  Jin Lu3*
  • 1Wuhan Mental Health Center, China
  • 2Peking University Clinical Research Institute, China
  • 3Kunming Medical University, China

Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with sexual dysfunction in the general population. Both smoking and sexual dysfunction are common in heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), but their association in MMT HDPs is rarely studied. This study examined the association between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction in Chinese HDPs receiving MMT.
Methods: In total, 480 Chinese HDPs who had sex with their regular or irregular sex partners within one month prior to the study were included from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China. Sexual dissatisfaction was assessed with one single question. Socio-demographic and clinical data and smoking characteristics were collected with a standardized questionnaire. Multiple binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between smoking and sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the associations between levels of smoking and nicotine dependence and sexual dissatisfaction.
Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 95.6% in HDPs receiving MMT. Rates of sexual dissatisfaction were higher in current smokers than non-smokers (32.9% vs. 14.3%) with a borderline significant P value of 0.074. After adjusting potential socio-demographic and clinical confounders, current smoking was significantly linked to sexual dissatisfaction (OR=1.95, P=0.026), and heavy smoking and severe nicotine dependence were significantly linked to sexual dissatisfaction (OR=1.80, P=0.025; OR=3.27, P<0.001).
Conclusion: Smoking is significantly associated with sexual dysfunction in HDPs receiving MMT. It deserves to further investigate whether quitting smoking can improve the sexual function of methadone-maintained patients.

Keywords: Smoking, Sexual dysfuction, Heroin Dependence, Methadon, Maintenance treatment

Received: 24 Oct 2018; Accepted: 17 Apr 2019.

Edited by:

CARLOS RONCERO, University of Salamanca Health Care Complex, Spain

Reviewed by:

Raul F. Palma-Alvarez, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Spain
Célia C. Franco, Hospital and University Center of Coimbra, Portugal  

Copyright: © 2019 Zhong, Xu, Xie and Lu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Dr. Baoliang Zhong, Wuhan Mental Health Center, Wuhan, China,
Dr. Jin Lu, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan Province, China,