Impact Factor 2.029
2018 JCR, Web of Science Group 2019

Frontiers journals are at the top of citation and impact metrics

Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00240

Antimicrobial drug consumption on Swiss pig farms: A comparison of Swiss and European defined daily and course doses in the field

 Thomas Echtermann1*, Dolf Kuemmerlen1,  Cedric Muentener1 and Xaver Sidler1
  • 1Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland

Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and Defined Course Doses (DCD) have been established in both human and veterinary medicine in order to standardize the measurement of treatments in a population. In 2016 the European Medicines Agency published average defined daily dose (DDDvet) and defined course dose (DCDvet) values for antimicrobial agents used in livestock production. Similarly, national defined doses (DDDch and DCDch) for the pig sector in Switzerland have recently been determined. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of calculating antimicrobial consumption based on either DDDvet/DCDvet or DDDch/DCDch.
Data from 227 Swiss pig farms describing antimicrobial use in 2015 was collected. The numbers of treatment days and treatments were calculated using DDDvet/DCDvet and DDDch/DCDch respectively for each farm in total and for different antimicrobial classes. Associations between calculated numbers of DDDvet/DCDvet and DDDch/DCDch on farm level were investigated. In addition, differences concerning antimicrobial use were investigated between different production types of farms (piglet-producer, finishing farm or farrow-to-finishing farm).
Using DDDch/DCDch values we calculated 1,805,494 treatment days and 433,678 treatments compared to 1,456,771 treatment days (19% ratio) and 303,913 treatments (30% ratio) based on DDDvet/DCDvet. Penicillins (21.4% / 26.6%), polypeptides (18.6% / 27.6%) and fluoroquinolones (9.5% / 8.8%) were the most frequently used classes of antimicrobials based on calculation using both DDDch and DDDvet. Similar findings were observed for complete treatments (DCDch/vet) (penicillins: 52.8% / 39.6%; polypeptides: 7.8% / 14.2%; fluoroquinolones: 13.2% / 12.9%). The number of treatment days or treatments per farm was higher for piglet-producers and farrow-to-finishing farms compared to finisher farms regardless of whether Swiss or European DDD or DCD values were used for the calculation (each P<0.001).
Similar results for antimicrobial use (AMU) obtained at farm level were observed when calculated either by Swiss or European definitions. Nevertheless, marked differences could be observed in the assessment of the use of specific antimicrobial classes in the field based on DDDvet/DCDvet compared to DDDch/DCDch.

Keywords: antimicrobial drug usage, antimicrobial classes, Defined daily dose, defined course dose, European Medicines Agency, Monitoring system, pigs, Switzerland

Received: 29 Mar 2019; Accepted: 02 Jul 2019.

Edited by:

Lucie Collineau, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France

Reviewed by:

Jarkko Niemi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland
Gabriel Arriagada, Universidad de O'Higgins, Chile
Anne HEMONIC, Institut du Porc (IFIP), France  

Copyright: © 2019 Echtermann, Kuemmerlen, Muentener and Sidler. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Thomas Echtermann, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland,