EHV-1 Pathogenesis: Current in Vitro Models and Future Perspectives
- 1Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Primary infection and pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) require an intricate interaction of virus with the mucosal epithelium, mononuclear cells and the vascular endothelium. Studies on EHV-1 have been facilitated by the development of different in vitro models that recapitulate the in vivo tissue complexity. The available in vitro assays can be categorized into (i) models mimicking the epithelium-peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) interaction, which include ex vivo mucosal (nasal and vaginal) explants and equine respiratory epithelial cells (EREC) cultures; and (ii) PBMC-endothelium mimicking models, including flow chamber and contact assays. These in vitro models have proven their worth in attempts to recapitulate the in vivo architecture and complexity, produce data relevant to natural host infection, and reduce animal use due to in vivo experiments. Although horse models are still needed for certain experiments, e.g. EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy or vaccination studies, available in vitro models can be used to obtain highly valuable data on virus-host tissue interactions. Microfluidic based 3D culture system (e.g., horse-on-a-chip) could be a potential upgraded version of these in vitro models for future research.
Keywords: Equine herpesvirus, EREC, nasal explant, Flow chamber system, Patho genesis, Model
Received: 03 Jan 2019;
Accepted: 12 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Tracy Stokol, Cornell University, United States
Reviewed by:Giuseppe Bertoni, Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI), Switzerland
Irit Davidson, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel
Copyright: © 2019 Kamel, Pavulraj, Osterrieder and Azab. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Walid Azab, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, 14195, Berlin, Germany, email@example.com