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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Vet. Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00282

Evaluation of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Bacillus-DFM (NorumTM) in broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

  • 1Department of Poultry Science, Bumpers College, University of Arkansas, United States
  • 2Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México, Mexico
  • 3Independent researcher, United States
  • 4Department of Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
  • 5University of Arkansas, United States

Restrictions of in-feed antibiotics use in poultry has pushed researches towards finding their appropriate alternatives such as Direct-Fed Microbials (DFM). In this study, previously tested Bacillus isolates (B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens) were used to evaluate their therapeutic and prophylactic effects against Salmonella Enteritidis in broiler chickens. For this purpose, initial antibacterial activity of Bacillus-DFM (104 spores/g or 106 spores/g) against S. Enteritidis colonization in crop, proventriculus and intestine was investigated using in vitro digestive model. Furthermore, to evaluate therapeutic and prophylactic effects of Bacillus-DFM (104 spores/g) against S. Enteritidis colonization, 25 broiler chickens were randomly allocated to either DFM or Control group (without Bacillus-DFM). Chickens were orally gavaged with 104 cfu of S. Enteritidis per chicken at 1-d old, and ceca-cecal tonsils (CCT) and crop were collected at 3 and 10 days later during therapeutic study, whereas they were orally gavaged with 107 cfu of S. Enteritidis per chicken at 6-d old and CCT and crop were collected 24 h later from two independent trials during prophylactic study. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), FITC-d and intestinal IgA levels were reported for both chicken studies, in addition of cecal microbiota analysis from therapeutic study. DFM significantly reduced S. Enteritidis concentration in intestine compartment, and in both proventriculus and intestine compartments as compared to the Control when used at 104 spores/g and 106 spores/g, respectively (p<0.05). DFM significantly reduced FITC-d and IgA, and SOD and IgA levels (p<0.05) as compared to the Control in therapeutic and prophylactic studies, respectively. Interestingly, in the therapeutic study, there was significant difference in bacterial community structure between DFM and Control. Likewise, phylum Actinobacteria and the genera Bifidobacterium, Roseburia, Proteus, and cc_115 were decreased, while the genus Streptococcus was enriched significantly in DFM group as compared to the Control (MetagenomeSeq, p<0.05). Thus, the overall results suggest that the Bacillus-DFM can reduce S. Enteritidis colonization and improve the intestinal health in chickens through mechanism(s) that might involve the modulation of gut microbiota and their metabolic pathways. The prophylacit and therapeutic effects of Bacillus-DFM at higher dose (106 spores/g) in broiler chickens are currently being evalulated.

Keywords: Bacillus, Broiler chickens, Salmonella enteritidis, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory (activity)

Received: 24 Apr 2019; Accepted: 07 Aug 2019.

Edited by:

Bradley L. Bearson, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States

Reviewed by:

Dirkjan Schokker, Wageningen Livestock Research, Netherlands
Pratima Adhikari, Mississippi State University, United States  

Copyright: © 2019 Adhikari, Hernandez-Patlan, Solis-Cruz, Kwon, Arreguin, Latorre, Hernandez-Velasco, Hargis and Tellez-Isaias. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Guillermo Tellez-Isaias, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, United States,