christine janet nicol
Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
London, United Kingdom
Field Chief Editor
Frontiers in Animal Science
The application of animal science has resulted in phenomenal increases in the productivity of traditional livestock species. Increased intensification has enabled millions of people to access meat, dairy, fish and eggs as a routine part of their daily diet. However, the production and consumption of animal-derived products also raises deep and urgent questions relating to human health, environmental sustainability and animal welfare.
Hard-won progress in reducing hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition has stalled in recent years and FAO analyses show that the world is not on track to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030. Animal-derived products have an important role to play in meeting this target. A small increase in animal-derived foods would greatly benefit vulnerable population groups, particularly women of reproductive age, infants and children, by providing high quality protein and important micronutrients. However, in many middle and high-income countries consumption of animal-derived foods exceeds levels required for good health and may, in some cases, lead directly or indirectly to poor health outcomes. Set against a background of rising demand and ongoing human population growth, the production of animals for food raises other urgent questions for human health. Efforts are needed to reduce antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance, to improve food safety and to reduce the spread of known pathogens and the existential risk of emergence of new viral zoonoses. Animal science has a critical role to play in producing healthier and more robust animals, and in designing housing and management systems that are more resilient to environmental perturbation and which protect the health of human workers.
Raising animals for food also presents enormous environmental challenges relating to water and land use, greenhouse gas and other emissions, soil quality and biodiversity. Societies increasingly demand that environmental impacts are properly recorded, considered and mitigated. Animal welfare is also high on the agenda in many societies and there is an ethical imperative to ensure that production systems are humane and can provide animals with a good life. Difficult decisions lie ahead. Should farm animals be kept in intensive systems, separated from (shrinking) protected natural landscapes, or integrated into previously natural landscapes alongside other forestry or leisure enterprises? Addressing these questions requires animal science to be considered within frameworks that encompass policy, governance, economics and consumer preference.
Frontiers in Animal Science is an open access journal that publishes original, high-quality research in traditional and novel disciplines pertaining to the use of all animals (including insects and other invertebrates) for food production. Submissions are rigorously and transparently peer reviewed. Submissions with a focus on traditional aspects of livestock production, including nutrition, genetics, management and housing, are welcome. Advances in approaches and technologies concerning genomics, microbiome studies, precision livestock farming and automation that address the challenges mentioned above are encouraged. The journal also welcomes submissions on animal welfare science, the ethics of animal production, concept of animal sentience, consumer and stakeholder attitudes, environmental sustainability, governance and the role of animals in food security and health. Frontiers in Animal Science is a multidisciplinary Open Access platform dedicated to the dissemination of high-quality scientific articles in the field, bringing together experts from academia, industry, and policy spheres to inspire and promote cutting-edge research.
Specialty Sections and their Chief Editors
- Animal Welfare and Policy - Led by Linda Keeling (Swedish University of Agricultural Studies)
- Precision Livestock Farming - Led by Guilherme Rosa (University of Wisconsin Madison)
- Animal Nutrition - Led by David Harmon (University of Kentucky)
- Animal Physiology and Management - Led by Geoffrey Dahl (University of Florida)
- Product Quality - Led by Jose Manuel Lorenzo (Centro Tecnologico de la Carne)
Further sections will be launched soon:
- Animal Breeding and Genetics
- Sustainable Animal Production
Frontiers in Animal Science is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
Front. Anim. Sci.
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Frontiers in Animal Science is composed of the following Specialty Sections:
The specialty sections of Frontiers in Animal Science welcome submission of the following article types: Brief Research Report, Case Report, Community Case Study, Conceptual Analysis, Correction, Data Report, Editorial, General Commentary, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Review, Opinion, Original Research, Perspective, Policy Brief, Policy and Practice Reviews, Review, Study Protocol, Systematic Review, Technology and Code.
When submitting a manuscript to Frontiers in Animal Science, authors must submit the material directly to one of the specialty sections. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the respective specialty section.
Frontiers' philosophy is that all research is for the benefit of humankind. Research is the product of an investment by society and therefore its fruits should be returned to all people without borders or discrimination, serving society universally and in a transparent fashion.
That is why Frontiers provides online free and open access to all of its research publications. For more information on open access click here.
Frontiers is fully compliant with open access mandates, by publishing its articles under the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY). Funder mandates such as those by the Wellcome Trust (UK), National Institutes of Health (USA) and the Australian Research Council (Australia) are fully compatible with publishing in Frontiers. Authors retain copyright of their work and can deposit their publication in any repository. The work can be freely shared and adapted provided that appropriate credit is given and any changes specified.
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Each Frontiers article strives for the highest quality, thanks to genuinely collaborative interactions between authors, editors and reviewers, who include many of the world's best scientists and scholars. Frontiers is well aware of the potential impact of published research both on future research and on society and, hence, does not support superficial review, light review or no-review publishing models. Research must be certified by peers before entering a stream of knowledge that may eventually reach the public - and shape society. Therefore, Frontiers only applies the most rigorous and unbiased reviews, established in the high standards of the Frontiers Review System. Furthermore, only the top certified research, evaluated objectively through quantitative online article level metrics, is disseminated to increasingly wider communities as it gradually climbs the tiers of the Frontiers Tiering System from specialized expert readership towards public understanding.
Frontiers has a number of procedures in place to support and ensure the quality of the research articles that are published:
Only leading experts and established members of the research community are appointed to the Frontiers Editorial Boards. Chief Editors, Associate Editors and Review Editors are all listed with their names and affiliations on the Journal pages and are encouraged to publicly list their publication credentials.
Associate Editors oversee the peer-review and take the final acceptance decision on manuscripts. Editorial decision power is distributed in Frontiers, because we believe that many experts within a community should be able to shape the direction of science for the benefit of society.
Submitting authors can choose a preferred Associate Editor to handle their manuscript, because they can judge well who would be an appropriate expert in editing their manuscript. There is no guarantee for this preference of choice, Associate Editors can decline invitations any time, and the handling Associate Editor can also be over-ridden by the Chief Editor before she/he is invited to edit the article or at any other stage.
Associate Editors are mandated to only accept to edit a manuscript if they have no conflicts of interest (as stated here and in their review invitation and assignment emails).
Should it become clear that the Associate Editor has a conflict of interest or is unable to perform the peer-review timely and adequately, a new Associate Editor can be assigned to the manuscript by the Chief Editor, who has full control to intervene in the peer-review process at any time.
The Associate Editor initially checks that the article meets basic quality standards and has no obvious objective errors.
The Associate Editor can then personally choose and invite the most appropriate reviewers to handle the peer-review of the manuscript, including Review Editors from the board or external reviewers.
The Associate Editor is aided in this by the Frontiers Collaborative Review Forum software and interface, which suggests the most relevant Review Editors based on a match between their expertise and the topic of the manuscript. Associate Editors can however choose any reviewer they deem adequate.
After a certain time frame and if no reviewers have in the meantime been assigned to the manuscript, the Frontiers platform and algorithmic safety-net steps in and invites the most appropriate Review Editors based on constantly updated and improved algorithms that match reviewer expertise with the submitted manuscript.
Review Editors and reviewers are mandated to only accept to review a manuscript if they have no conflicts of interest (as stated here and in their review invitation and assignment emails).
Frontiers algorithms are constantly fine-tuned to better match Review Editors with manuscripts, and additional checks are being coded into the platform, for example regarding conflicts of interest.
Should it become clear that a particular reviewer has a conflict of interest or is unable to perform the peer-review timely and adequately, he or she shall be replaced with an alternative reviewer by the Associate Editor or the Chief Editor, who will be alerted and has full control to intervene into the peer-review at any time.
In the Independent Review Stage the assigned reviewers perform an in-depth review of the article independently of each other to safeguard complete freedom of opinion.
The reviewers are aided by an online standardized review questionnaire – adopted to article types – with the goal to facilitate rigorous evaluation according to objective criteria and the Frontiers Review Guidelines.
The Associate Editor assesses the reviews and activates the “Interactive Review” – informing the authors of the extent of revisions that are required to address the reviewers’ comments, and starting the Interactive Discussion Forum where authors and also the reviewers get full access to all review reports.
Manuscript and review quality at this stage are enhanced by allowing authors and reviewers to discuss directly with each other in real-time until they reach consensus and a final version of the manuscript is endorsed by the reviewers.
Reviewer identity is protected at this stage to safeguard complete freedom of opinion.
Reviewers can recommend rejection at this stage if their requests to correct objective errors are not being met by the authors or if they deem the article overall of insufficient quality.
Should a dispute arise, authors or reviewers can trigger an arbitration and will alert the Associate Editor, who can assign more reviewers and/or bring the dispute to the attention of the Chief Editor. The Associate Editor can also weigh in on the discussion and is asked to mediate the process to ensure a constructive revision stage.
The decision to accept an article needs to be unanimous amongst all reviewers and the handling Associate Editor.
The names of the Associate Editor and reviewers are disclosed on published articles to encourage in depth and rigorous reviews, acknowledge work well done on the article and to bring transparency and accountability into peer-review.
Associate Editors can recommend the rejection of an article to the Chief Editor, who needs to check that the authors’ rights have been upheld during the peer-review process, and who can then ultimately reject the article if it is of insufficient quality, has objective errors or if the authors were unreasonably unwilling to address the points raised during the review.
Chief Editors can at any stage of the peer-review step in to comment on the review process, change assigned editors, assign themselves as a reviewer and even as the handling editor for the manuscript, and therefore have full authority and all the mechanisms to act independently in their online editorial office to ensure quality.
Only leading researchers acting as Associate Editors, who are not part of Frontiers staff, can make acceptance decisions based on reviews performed by external experts acting as Review Editors or reviewers. None have a financial incentive to accept articles, i.e. they are not paid for their role to act as Associate or Review Editors, and any award scheme is not linked to acceptances of manuscripts.
Chief Editors receive an honorarium if their specialty section or field reaches certain submission levels. However, this honorarium is based on the total number of submitted articles during a calendar year, and not the number of accepted articles. Therefore they also have no financial incentive to accept manuscripts.
The Frontiers platform enables post-publication commenting and discussions on papers and hence the possibility to critically evaluate articles even after the peer-review process.
Frontiers has a community retraction protocol in place to retract papers where serious concerns have been raised and validated by the community that warrant retraction, including ethical concerns, honest errors or scientific misconduct.