General Commentary ARTICLE
Commentary: Comparison of the Protective Effects of Individual Components of Particulated trans -Sialidase (PTCTS), against High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits
- 1Instituto do Coraçao, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Aging cells and organisms accumulate increased levels of nuclear DNA damaged by oxidants (Silva et al., 2011). Numerous pathogens have been identified as contributing factors to the chronic inflammatory state of atherosclerosis such as Coxsackie B virus, HIV, H.pilori, CMV (Morré et al., 2000; Dahal et al., 2017). In this general comment we develop the concept about mechanism of PTCTS works, a new anti-oxidant natural nanoparticles (PTCTS) for decreasing the amount of atherosclerotic plaques, possibly due to removal of infectious agents (Garavelo et al., 2017).
Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Higuchi et al., 2003) were found in human atherosclerotic plaques, and increased levels of anti-Chlamydophila pneumoniae and anti- Mycoplasma.pneumoniae antibodies were seen after acute myocardial infarction (Maia et al.2009; Momiyama et al., 2004). Extracellular vesicles are membrane-coated vesicles, may play a role in endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation and free radical production, classified as microvesicles (0.1 to 1 μm) or exosomes (<0.1 μm), having procoagulant and proinflammatory properties according to their lipid and protein compositions (Hugel et al., 2005; Boulanger et al., 2006). Microvesicles isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions are highly thrombogenic (Ridger et al., 2017; Huber et al., 2002; Brodsky et al., 2004). Increased levels of circulating microvesicles in Metabolic Syndrome patients induced in vitro endothelial cells studies, NO reduction and superoxide anion production (Agouni A et al., 2008), suggesting that microvesicles may be participating on LDL oxidation to generate inflammation and activation of the immune system.
Human coronary arteries with unstable plaques are richer in microvesicles, sometimes containing archaeal DNA, suggesting a possible infectious etiology (Higuchi et al., 2006).
Archaea are primitive microorganisms producing collagenase and inflammation, reducing metals such as Fe and Mn (Lovley et al., 2004; Kurtz 2004). Archaeal superoxide dismutases, would neutralize the oxidative capacity of macrophages in the fight against infectious agents (Cannio et al., 2000; Srinivasan and Morowitz 2006).
We found greater number of such microvesicles, which had greater quantity of oxLDL and collagenases, on unstable plaque than on normal artery or on stable plaque (Ikegami et al., 2015).
PTCTS cosmetic gel was efficient in treatment of lesions by radio dermatitis, with no undesirable side effects (Graziani et al., 2015). The Nutricosmetic with PTCTS, combining transialidase enzyme with nanoparticles derived from orchid extracts, was able to remove archaea. This nutricosmetic agent in experimental work with atherosclerotic rabbits lead to reduction of inflammation in plaques in parallel with removal of microvesicles from serum arteries, without side effects (Garavelo et al., 2017; Garavelo et al., 2015).
Nutricosmetics are considered nutritional supplements based on bioactive compounds that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and PTCTS would also remove different infectious agents. In addition to prevent skin aging and strengthening hair and nails, nutricosmetics act in a systemic way, contributing to a better quality of life and well being, under the premise of a healthy body inside and beautiful on the outside. The objective is preventing aging, capillary fall, (Neves 2009) and atherosclerosis, being necessary the development of human clinical trials to determine efficacy and safety in healthy and atherosclerotic individuals.
Keywords: Microvesicles, Atherosclerosis, Components of Particulated trans -Sialidase, anti-oxidant natural nanoparticles , PTCTS
Received: 18 Sep 2018;
Accepted: 08 Nov 2018.
Edited by:Ali H. Eid, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Reviewed by:Alessandra Magenta, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (IRCCS), Italy
Copyright: © 2018 Higuchi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: MD, PhD. Maria De Lourdes Higuchi, Instituto do Coraçao, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, email@example.com