General Commentary ARTICLE
Commentary: Comparison of the Protective Effects of Individual Components of Particulated trans-Sialidase (PTCTS), PTC and TS, against High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits
- Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Instituto do Coraçao, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
A Commentary on
Comparison of the Protective Effects of Individual Components of Particulated trans-Sialidase (PTCTS), PTC and TS, against High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits
by Garavelo, S. M., Higuchi, M. L., Pereira, J. J., Reis, M. M., Kawakami, J. T., Ikegami, R. N., et al. (2017). BioMed. Res. Int. 2017, 1–12.
In this comment we develop the concept that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process, aggravated with the presence of infectious agents, such as Coxsackie B virus, HIV, H.pilori, CMV, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae and pathogenic archaea. We also develop hypothesis about how PTCTS works, a new natural nutricosmetic produced by nanoparticles derived from orchid flowers, transialidase, and thermal water, which had a strong anti-oxidant effect. In previous work, published BioMed Research International, we demonstrated that serum extracellular vesicles containing Mycoplasma pneumoniae lipoproteins increased with cholesterol enriched diet, and they decreased with administration of oral PTCTS (experimental work approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine of University of Sao Paulo). The hypothesis is that, PTCTS would remove pathogenic archaea, the symbiotic microbe responsible for maintenance of other bacteria growing. Then, removing archaea, the macrophages would re-establishes their capacity of killing intra-cellular microbes, decreasing atherosclerotic plaques, in rabbits. Now we intend to initiate human clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy of oral PTCTS in humans.
Aging cells and organisms accumulate increased levels of nuclear DNA damaged by oxidants (1). Numerous pathogens have been identified as contributing factors to the chronic inflammatory state of atherosclerosis such as Coxsackie B virus, HIV, H.pilori, CMV (2, 3). In this general comment we develop the concept about mechanism of PTCTS works, a new anti-oxidant natural nanoparticles (PTCTS) for decreasing the amount of atherosclerotic plaques, possibly due to removal of infectious agents (4).
Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (5) were found in human atherosclerotic plaques, and increased levels of anti-Chlamydophila pneumoniae and anti-Mycoplasma.pneumoniae antibodies were seen after acute myocardial infarction (6, 7). Extracellular vesicles are membrane-coated vesicles, may play a role in endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation and free radical production, classified as microvesicles (0.1 to 1 μm) or exosomes (< 0.1 μm), having procoagulant and proinflammatory properties according to their lipid and protein compositions (8, 9). Microvesicles isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions are highly thrombogenic (10–12). Increased levels of circulating microvesicles in Metabolic Syndrome patients induced in vitro endothelial cells studies, NO reduction and superoxide anion production (13), suggesting that microvesicles may be participating on LDL oxidation to generate inflammation and activation of the immune system.
Human coronary arteries with unstable plaques are richer in microvesicles, sometimes containing archaeal DNA, suggesting a possible infectious etiology (14).
Archaea are primitive microorganisms producing collagenase and inflammation, reducing metals such as Fe and Mn (15, 16). Archaeal superoxide dismutases, would neutralize the oxidative capacity of macrophages in the fight against infectious agents (17, 18).
We found greater number of such microvesicles, which had greater quantity of oxLDL and collagenases, on unstable plaque than on normal artery or on stable plaque (19).
PTCTS cosmetic gel was efficient in treatment of lesions by radio dermatitis, with no undesirable side effects (20). The Nutricosmetic with PTCTS, combining transialidase enzyme with nanoparticles derived from orchid extracts, was able to remove archaea. This nutricosmetic agent in experimental work with atherosclerotic rabbits lead to reduction of inflammation in plaques in parallel with removal of microvesicles from serum arteries, without side effects (4, 21).
Nutricosmetics are considered nutritional supplements based on bioactive compounds that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and PTCTS would also remove different infectious agents. In addition to prevent skin aging and strengthening hair and nails, nutricosmetics act in a systemic way, contributing to a better quality of life and well being, under the premise of a healthy body inside and beautiful on the outside. The objective is preventing aging, capillary fall, (22) and atherosclerosis, being necessary the development of human clinical trials to determine efficacy and safety in healthy and atherosclerotic individuals.
The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
This work was supported by Grant no. 2012/12656-5 from FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo).
4. Garavelo SM, Higuchi ML, Pereira JJ, Reis MM, Kawakami JT, Ikegami RN, et al. Comparison of the protective effects of individual components of particulated trans -sialidase (PTCTS), PTC and TS, against high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. BioMed Res Int. (2017) 2017:1–12. doi: 10.1155/2017/7212985
5. Higuchi ML, Reis MM, Sambiase NV, Palomino SA, Castelli JB, Gutierrez PS, et al. Coinfection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in ruptured plaques associated with acute myocardial infarction. Arq Bras Cardiol. (2003) 81:12–22. doi: 10.1590/S0066-782X2003000900001
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13. Agouni A, Lagrue-Lak-Hal AH, Ducluzeau PH, Mostefai HA, Draunet-Busson C, Leftheriotis G, et al. Endothelial dysfunction caused by circulating microparticles from patients with metabolic syndrome. Am J Pathol. (2008) 173:1210–9. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2008.080228
14. Higuchi ML, Santos MH, Roggério A, Kawakami JT, Bezerra HG, Canzian M. A role for archaeal organisms in development of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques and myxoid matrices. Clinics (2006) 61:473–8. doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322006000500016
17. Cannio R, Florentino G, Morana A, Rossi M, Bartolucci S. Oxygen: friend or foe? Archaeal superoxide dismutases in the protection of intra- and extracellular oxidative stress. Front Biosci. (2000) 5:D768–79.
19. Ikegami RN, Kawakami JT, Abdalla DSP, Santos RD, Filho RK, Ramires JAF. et al. Infection and microparticles may cause complication of atherosclerotic plaques. J Diabetes Metab. (2015) 6:537–40. doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000537
20. Graziani SR, Van Eyll BM, Fristachi CE, Lourdes Higuchi M, Ikegami R, Ramires JA. Safety and efficacy of PTCTS cosmetic gel: study on human radiodermatitis lesions. Case Rep Clin Med. (2015) 4:327–33. doi: 10.4236/crcm.2015.410065
21. Garavelo SM, Pereira JJ, Wadt NSY, Reis MM, Ikegami RN, Kawakami JT, et al. Oral PTCTS (Particulated Transialidase) removes serum microparticles and decreases inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques of rabbits. Adv Nanoparticles (2015) 4:107–15. doi: 10.4236/anp.2015.44012
Keywords: microvesicles, atherosclerosis, components of particulated trans-sialidase, anti-oxidant natural nanoparticles, PTCTS
Citation: Higuchi ML (2018) Commentary: Comparison of the Protective Effects of Individual Components of Particulated trans-Sialidase (PTCTS), PTC and TS, against High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits. Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 5:171. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00171
Received: 18 September 2018; Accepted: 08 November 2018;
Published: 03 December 2018.
Edited by:Ali Hussein Eid, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
Reviewed by:Alessandra Magenta, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (IRCCS), Italy
Copyright © 2018 Higuchi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Maria de Lourdes Higuchi, firstname.lastname@example.org